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Social and Moral Code of Islam

By Dr. Muhammad Sharif Chaudhry

CHAPTER 6

CHARACTER: VICES

  1. Adultery

  2. Anger

  3. Backbiting

  4. Cursing

  5. Deception

  6. Envy

  7. Extravagance

  8. Gambling

  9. Greed

  10. Hypocrisy

  11. Miserliness

  12. Oppression

  13. Pride

  14. Show

  15. Suspicion

  16. Telling Lie

  17. Wine Drinking

The vices are bad qualities, bad characteristics, demerits or weaknesses of human character which bring down human beings to the lowest ebb and make them as the worst of God’s creations. The possessors of these vices have been threatened by the Qur’an and Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) with painful doom especially in the Hereafter.

List of vices dealt in this chapter should not, however, be taken as final. The vices are numerous and no exhaustive list can be made of them. In this chapter only some of the very notorious vices are being discussed. The believers have been exhorted by Islam to avoid these vices.

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I – Adultery

The Arabic word ‘Zina’ is used for illicit or unlawful sexual intercourse between a man and a woman who are not married to each other. This term stands both for adultery and fornication and does not make any difference between the two. In English language there is difference between adultery and fornication. Fornication stands for illicit sexual relations between two unmarried persons; while adultery denotes unlawful sexual relationship between the persons, one or both of whom are married to other or others.

Zina (adultery and fornication) is the most abominable act and has been expressly made unlawful by the Islamic penal code. It is one of the gravest sins and one of the greatest crimes. The revealed book of Islam strictly prohibits its followers even to go near it because it is an abomination and evil way. It is one of the crimes liable for hudood. The punishment for it has been prescribed in the Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH).

Following are the verses of Al-Qur’an and Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) which ban ‘Zina’ in all its forms:

Verses of the Holy Qur’an:

1.   And come not near unto adultery Lo! It is an abomination and an evil way.   ––17: 32

2.   And who guard their modesty – Save from their wives or the (slaves) that their right hands possess. For then they are not blameworthy. But whoso craveth beyond that, such are transgressors.   ––23: 5-7

3.   The adulterer and the adulteress, scourge ye each one of them (with) a hundred stripes. And let not pity for the twain withhold you from obedience to Allah, if ye believe in Allah and the Last Day. And let a party of believers witness their punishment.   ––24: 2

4.   ……Force not your slave-girls to whoredom that ye may seek enjoyment of the life of the world, if they would preserve their chastity. And if one force them, then (unto them), after their compulsion, Lo! Allah will be Forgiving, Merciful.`   ––24: 33

5.   O Prophet! If the believing women come unto thee, taking oath of allegiance unto thee that they will ascribe nothing as partner unto Allah, and will neither steal nor commit adultery nor kill their children, nor produce any lie that they have devised between their hands and feet, nor disobey thee in what is right then accept their allegiance and ask Allah to forgive them. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.   ––60: 12

Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):

1.   Samit reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Receive (teaching) from me, receive (teaching) from me. Allah has ordained a way for those (women). When an unmarried male commits adultery with an unmarried female (they should receive) one hundred lashes and banishment for one year. And in case of married male committing adultery with a married female. They shall receive one hundred lashes and be stoned to death.   (Muslim)

2.   ‘Abduallah b. Masud said: I asked: Apostle of Allah, which sin is the gravest? He replied: That you associate someone with Allah, while He has created you. I again asked: which then? He said: That you kill your child fearing that it will eat with you. I again asked: Which then? He replied: That you commit adultery with the wife of your neighbour. Allah then revealed the following Quranic verse in support of the statement of the prophet (may peace be upon him): “Those who invoke not with Allah any other god, nor slay such life as Allah has made sacred, except for just cause, nor commit fornication.”  
   (Abu Daud)

3.   Yezid-b-Nu’aim reported from his father that Ma’ez came to the Holy Prophet and confessed before him four times (of adultery). So he ordered him to be stoned to death. He said to Hajjal: Had you covered him with your cloth, it would have been better for you. Ibnul Munkader said that Hajjal ordered Ma’ez to come to the Prophet and to inform him (adultery).  
   (Abu Daud)

4.   Amr b. al-‘As told that he heard God’s messenger say, “Fornication will not appear among any people without their being punished by famine, and bribery will not appear among any people without their being punished by terror.”   (Ahmad)
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II – Anger

Anger is a violent, revengeful passion or emotion, excited by a real or supposed injury to oneself or others. Extreme anger (wrath or rage) implies a certain outward manifestation, violence and want of self-command. Annoyance, antagonism, fury, indignation, outrage, rage, wrath are its synonyms. Anger is a fleak of fire lodged in the heart of man. In the state of anger it is very difficult to control oneself. In the case of extreme anger, people lose self-control and sometimes commit major crimes, even murders, in order to quench their thirst for revenge. Islam condemns such type of anger. According to the Prophet, anger spoils faith as aloes spoil honey. The strong man is not the wrestler; the strong man is only he who controls his anger. The Qur’an admires those who control their anger and forgive.

Following Verses of the Qur’an and Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) highlight the merits of those who control anger and also provide recipe how to control anger.

Verses of the Holy Qur’an:

1.   Those who spend of that which Allah hath given (them) in ease and adversity, those who control their wrath and are forgiving toward mankind; Allah loveth the good;   (3: 134)

2.   ……And that which Allah hath is better and more lasting for those who believe and put their trust in their Lord. And those who shun the worst of sins and indecencies, and when they are wroth, forgive.   (42: 36-37)

Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):

1.   Anas reported God’s Messenger as saying, “If one guards his tongue God will conceal his secrets; if one restrains his anger God will keep His punishment from him on the Day of Resurrection; and if one makes his excuse to God, God will accept his excuse.”   (Mishkat)

2.   Regarding the words of God Most High, “Repel with what is better,” Ibn’ Abbas said they mean patience when angry and forgiveness when badly treated, for when people act thus God protects them and their enemy is made submissive to them as though he were a close and near friend.   (Bukhari)

3.   Bahz b. Hakim, on his father’s authority, told that his grandfather reported God’s messenger as saying, “Anger spoils faith as aloes spoil honey.”   (Mishkat)

4.   Abu Hurairah told that a man asked the Prophet to give him some instruction and he said, “Do not be angry.” The man repeated that several times and he replied, “Do not be angry.”  
   (Bukhari)

5.   Abu Hurairah reported God’s messenger as saying, “The strong man is not the good wrestler; the strong man is only he who controls himself when he is angry.”   (Bukhari and Muslim)

6.   Atiya b. ‘Urwa as-Sa’di reported God’s messenger as saying, “Anger comes from the devil, the devil was created of fire, and fire is extinguished only with water; so when one of you becomes angry he should perform ablution.”   (Abu Daud)

7.   Abu Dharr reported God’s messenger as saying, “When one of you becomes angry while standing he should sit down. If the anger leaves him, well and good; otherwise he should lie down.”   (Ahmad and Tirmizi)

8.   Ibn Omar reported that the Messenger of Allah said: No servant takes a pill more bitter in the sight of the Almighty and Glorious Allah than the pill of anger which he swallows up, seeking pleasure of the Almighty Allah.   (Ahmad)

9.   Sahal-b-Mu’az from his father reported that the Holy Prophet said: Whoever swallows up anger though he is capable of throwing it out, Allah will call him to the forefront of the creatures on the Resurrection Day till he will be put to option about any pure-eyed virgins he will like.  
   (Abu Daud, Tirmizi (Rare)).

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III – Backbiting

Backbiting means to slander, to speak ill of. It can be defined as speaking evil of one who is absent. In other words, backbiting is to say something bad in one’s absence which you would not like to say in his presence.

The meaning of backbiting have been explained by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in very beautiful way. When asked what is back-biting the Prophet said: Your talk about your brother (in his absence) which he dislikes. He was questioned: Inform if what is said is found in my brother, the Prophet said: “If what you say is in him, it is backbiting, and if it is not in him it is slander”. Backbiting, according to Islam, is one of the major evils connected with the tongue. In the words of Qur’an, backbiting is like eating the flesh of one’s dead brother and so it should be abhored as one abhors the eating of flesh of a dead brother. The Prophet of Islam said that backbiting is worse than fornication as the fornicator repents and Allah forgives him but there is no repentance for the backbiter because he is not forgiven till his companion does not forgive him. Once the Prophet ordered those persons who had prayed and were fasting to repeat their ablution and prayer and fast on some other day because they were guilty of backbiting. In the night the Prophet ascended to Heaven (mairaj), he saw men who were scratching their chests and faces with their copper nails. Gibrail told the Prophet that they were backbiters. The Prophet is also reported to have said that a backbiter will never enter Paradise.

Why backbiting is that much hated in Islam? The reason is simple. Blood, the property and the honour of a Muslim is unlawful to another Muslim. Backbiting is a crime against the honour of a Muslim and hence it is the most despised thing. It is said that the most compound of usury is the prolonging of the tongue of evil unjustly in the respect of a Muslim’s honour. Backbiting is violation of basic human rights and the person whose right has been violated is entitled to revenge or compensation. In the sight of Islam, it pertains to Huqooqul Ibad (right of men) where Allah does not pardon. The backbiter can be forgiven only by the aggrieved person and if not, he will have to compensate the aggrieved person.

Following are the verses of the Qur’an and Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) which not only condemn backbiting but also tell of its evils:

Verses of the Holy Qur’an:

1.   O ye who believe! Shun much suspicion; for lo! Some suspicion is a crime. And spy not, neither backbite one another. Would one of you love to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Ye abhor that (so abhor the other)! And keep your duty (to Allah). Lo! Allah is Relenting, Merciful.  
   ––49: Al-Hujurat: 12

2.   Woe to every (kind of) scandal-monger and backbiter.  
   ––104: Humaza: 2

Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):

1.   Anas reported God’s Messenger as saying, “When my Lord took me up to heaven I passed people who had nails of copper and were scratching their faces and their breasts. I asked Gabriel who these were, and he replied that they were those who were given to backbiting and who aspersed people’s honor.”   (Abu Daud)

2.   Ibn Abbas reported that two men prayed their noon (or afternoon) prayer while they were fasting. When the Holy Prophet finished his prayer, he said: Repeat your ablution, and break your fast and do it on another day. He was enquired: Why, O Messenger of Allah? He said: You have backbited so and so.   (Baihaqi)

3.   Abu Sayeed and Jaber reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Backbiting is worse than fornication. They enquired: O Messenger of Allah! how is backbiting worse than fornication? He replied: A man commits fornication and then he repents and so Allah returns to him (And in a narration – so Allah returns to him and forgives him) but the backbiter is not forgiven till his companion does not forgive him. And in a narration of Anas he said: The fornicator repents, but (as for) the backbiter, there is no repentance for him.   (Baihaqi)

4.   Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Do you all know what is backbiting? They replied: Allah and his Apostle know best. He said: Your talk about your brother which he dislikes. He was questioned: Inform me if what I say be in my brother. He said: If what you say is in him, still you will be backbiting him, and if what you say is not in him, you will be slandering him.   (Muslim)

5.   Ibn Omar reported from the Messenger of Allah who said: The hearer of (backbiting) is one of the backbiters.   (Tibrani)

6.   Abdullah-b-Mas’ud reported that the Messenger of Allah said: To backbite a Muslim is transgression; and to fight with him is infidelity.   (Bukhari and Muslim)

7.   Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah said: The expiation of backbiting is to seek forgiveness from one whom you have backbited saying: O Allah! forgive us and him.   (Baihaqi)

8.   Hudhaifa (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: The backbiter will never enter Paradise.  
   (Bukhari and Muslim
)

9.   Abdur Rahman-b-Ganam reported that the Messenger of Allah said: The best of the servants of Allah are those who, when seen, remember Allah; and the worst of the servants of Allah are those who roam with slanders, who create differences among the pious.   (Ahmad, Baihaqi)

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IV – Cursing

Curse is unlawful in Islam and it is a great sin. A believer, according to the Prophet, is neither a taunter nor a curser nor indecent nor abuser. If anyone curses a believer his sin will be as if he murderers him. The Prophet has advised his followers: Don’t curse one another with the curse of Allah, nor with the wrath of Allah, nor with hell nor with the fire. Men given to cursing are not allowed to give evidence nor allowed to intercede. Curse returns to one who curses if it is false.

However a Muslim is allowed to curse disbelievers, polytheists, Satan the outcast, the criminals in general like murders, robbers, drunkards, adulterers, usurers, corrupt, mischief-makers as such people have been cursed by Allah in the Holy Qur’an. A believer who is oppressed, wronged or persecuted is also permitted to curse. Except in dire necessity or except in case he is forced to, a believer is not expected to curse anybody or anything.

Following are the Verses of the Qur’an and Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) which highlight the evils of cursing and exhort the believers to avoid this vice:

Verses of the Holy Qur’an:

1.   Those who hide the proofs and guidance which We revealed, after We had made it clear to mankind in the scripture: Such are accursed of Allah and accursed of those who have the power to curse:   ––2: 159

2.   Lo! those who disbelieve, and die while they are disbelievers; on them is the curse of Allah and of angels and of men combined.   ––2: 161

3.   Whoso slayeth a believer of set purpose, his reward is Hell for ever. Allah is wroth against him and He hath cursed him and prepared for him an awful doom.   ––4: 93

4.   Allah loveth not that evil should be noised abroad in public speech except where injustice hath been done……   ––4: 148

5.   Those of the children of Israel who went astray were cursed by the tongue of David and of Jesus, Son of Mary, That was because they rebelled and used to transgress.   ––5: 78

6.   Allah promiseth the hypocrites, both men and women, and the disbelievers fire of hell for their abode. It will suffice them. Allah curseth them and theirs is lasting torment.   ––9: 68

7.   And those who break the covenant of Allah after ratifying it, and sever that which Allah hath commanded should be joined, and make mischief in the earth: theirs is the curse and their the ill abode.   ––13: 25

8.   Lo! Those who malign Allah and His messenger, Allah hath cursed them in the world and the Hereafter, and hath prepared for them the doom of the disdained.   ––33: 57

Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):

1.    Abu Zaid bin Thabit bin Dahhak al-Ansari (he is one of those who pledged allegiance to the Messenger of Allah under the Tree) reported that Allah’s messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: He who swears by a religion other than Islam, is like what he has professed. He who kills himself with a thing, will be tormented with it on the Day of Resurrection. A person is not bound to fulfill a vow about a thing which he does not possess. If any one curses a believer, his sin will be as if he murdered him.   (Bukhari and Muslim)

2.   Ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: A believer is neither taunter nor a curser nor indecent nor abuser.   (Tirmizi)

3.   Samorah-b- Jundub reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Don’t curse one another with the curse of Allah, nor with the wrath of Allah, nor with hell. And in a narration: nor with the fire.   (Tirmizi, Abu Daud)

4.   Abu Darda’a reported: I heard the Messenger of Allah say: When a servant curses a thing, the curse ascends to heaven, then the doors of heaven are shut up against it. Afterward it comes down to the earth and its doors are also shut up against it. Then it takes to right and left sides, but when it does not find any place for refuge, it goes to one who was cursed. If he deserves that, (it goes to him), and if not it reverts to one who uttered it.   (Abu Daud)

5.   Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: It is not proper for a great truthful man to become a great curser.  
   (Muslim)

6.   Abu Darda’a reported: I heard the Messenger of Allah say: Men given to cursing shall not be witnesses, nor intercessors on the Resurrection Day.   (Muslim)

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V – Deception

Deception is act of deceiving or state of being deceived. Deceive means anything intended to mislead other, persuade of what is false, mislead purposely. It is also concealment or perversion of the truth for the purpose of misleading. It is cause to believe what is false or disbelieve what is true; to mislead, to delude, to beguile; to disappoint with regard to hopes, expectations. Bamboozle, beguile, betray, cheat, delude, disappoint, entrap, fool, hoax, hoodwink are similars of deceive. Synonyms of deception are deceit, craftiness, fraud, guile, deceitfulness deceptiveness, dissimulation, duplicity, hypocrisy, illusion, treachery, cheating, bluff, trick, stratagem, etc.

Islam condemms deception and deceit. A deceitful man or a cheat or a fraudulent man will never enter Paradise. Cursed is he who injures a believer or playes deceit with him. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) enjoined upon his followers to avoid deception and fraudulent practices in business which were not uncommon in those days as today. According to the Qur’an the life of the world is an illusion. Let this life not deceive you and let not the deceitful deceive you about Allah. Iblis (Satan or Devil) deceived Adam and misled him to taste the forbidden fruit and therefor got Adam expelled from Paradise. The Qur’an has prohibited fraudulent practices in measuring and weighing. It has also strictly prohibited to beguile or mislead the people in the matters of religion.

Following are the Verses of the Qur’an and Ahadith of the Prophet which throw light on Islamic view about deception:

Verses of the Holy Qur’an:

1.   They think to beguile Allah and those who believe, and they beguile none save themselves; but they perceive not.   ––2: 9

2.   And forsake those who take their religion for a pastime and a jest, and whom the life of the world beguileth……   ––6: 70

3.   Then Satan whispered to them that he might manifest them that which was hidden from them of their shame, and he said: Your Lord forbade you from the tree only lest ye should become angels or become of the immortals. And he swore unto them (saying): Lo! I am a sincere adviser unto you. Thus did he lead them on with guile. And when they tasted of the tree their shame was manifest to them and they began to hide (by heaping) on themselves some of the leaves of the Garden……   ––7: 20-22

4.   ……And in the Hereafter there is grievous punishment and (also) forgiveness from Allah and His good pleasure, whereas the life of the world is but matter of illusion.   ––57: 20

5.   Woe unto the defrauders: Those who when they take from mankind demand it full, but if they measure unto them or weigh for them, they cause them loss.   ––83: 1-3

Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):

1.    Abu Hurairah (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (pace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: He who takes up arms against us is not of us and he who acts dishonesty towards us in not of us.   (Muslim)
Another version of Muslim is: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) happened to pass
by a heap of the corn. He thrust his hand in that (heap) and his fingers were moistened. He said to the owner of that heap of corn: What is this? He replied: Messenger of Allah, these have been drenched by rainfall. He remarked: Why did you not place this (the drenched part of the heap) over the corn so that the people may see it? He who deceives is not of us.

2.   Abu Hurairah (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: Avoid deception in business.   (Muslim)

3.   Ibn ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) prohibited from adopting deceptive devices in transactions.   (Bukhari and Muslim)

4.   Ibn ’Umar (Allah be pleased with him) reported: A man mentioned to the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) that he was often deceived in dealings. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to him: When you enter into a transaction you should say: There should be no deception.   (Bukhari and Muslim)

5.   Saoban reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Whoso dies while he is free from pride, deceit and debt, will enter Paradise.   (Tirmizi, Ibn Majah, Darimi)

6.   Abu Bakr the truthful reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Cursed is he who injures a believer or plays deceit with him.   (Tirmizi, (Rare)

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VI – Envy

Envy means feeling of resentment, discontent or jealousy excited by the sight of another’s superiority, his successes, his possessions or his advantages. It is envious resentment against a successful rival or the possessor of any coveted advantage. Envy is a mental uneasiness due to suspicions or fear of rivalry. It is a feeling, may be on account of known or suspected rivalry, that makes a person begrudge another in respect of his good fortune.

When you see a person who is more fortune than you or who has been blessed with more possessions, more gifts, more advantages than you, two types of feelings or conditions arise in your mind. You feel resentment or jealousy and wish that he should be deprived of his fortune and his gifts, or you wish that similar fortune and gifts should be given to you rather than he should be deprived of. The first type of feelings are bad and are in the nature of jealousy or envy, but second type of feelings are generally good and lead you to vie with him in healthy competition. Islam condemns the former type of feeling which is jealousy or envy as it is a negative passion, while it encourages healthy competition amongst its followers specially in the matter of religion and pious acts. Medicine for overcoming negative feeling of envy prescribed by Islam is that one should have a strong belief that all our fortunes or misfortunes have been predetermined and they come from Allah, the Almighty.

Following are the Verses of The Qur’an and traditions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) on envy:

Verses of the Holy Qur’an:

1.   Many of the people of the Scripture long to make you disbelievers after your belief, through envy on their own account, after the truth hath become manifest unto them. Forgive and be indulgent (toward them) until Allah give command. Lo! Allah is Able to do all things.  
   ––2: Al-Baqarah: 109

2.   And each one hath a goal toward which he turneth, so vie with one another in good works……   ––2: Al-Baqarah: 148

3.   And covet not the thing in which Allah made some of you excel others. Unto men a fortune from that which they have earned, and unto women a fortune from that which they have earned. (Envy not one another) but ask Allah of His bounty. Lo! Allah is ever Knower of All things.   ––4: An-Nisa: 32

4.   Or are they jealous of mankind because of that which Allah of His bounty hath bestowed upon them?……   ––4: An-Nisa: 54

5.   Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of Daybreak.
Form the evil of that which He created;
From the evil of the darkness when it is intense;
And from the evil of malignant witchcraft,
And from the evil of the envier when he envieth.  
   ––113: Al-Falaq: 1-5

Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):

1.    Abu Hurairah (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: Beware of jealousy because jealousy consumes the virtues just as fire consumes the fuel.   (Abu Daud)

2.   Ibn Masud reported that the Messenger of Allah said: There is no envy except for two: a man whom Allah has given wealth and whom He gave power for spending it for cause of truth and a man whom Allah has given wisdom and who acts upto it and teaches it (to others).   (Bukhari, Muslim)

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VII – Extravagance

Extravagance means unrestrained or fantastic excess, as of actions or opinions; excessive expenditure or outlay, as of money; an instance of wastefullness or prodigality. It is spending more money than necessary, profusion in expenses or lavish expenditure. Its synonyms are immoderation, improvidence, lavishness, overspending, prodigality, profligacy, squandering, wastefulness, excess, imprudence.

Extravagance, according to a Muslim scholar, means firstly spending wealth on unlawful things, such as gambling, drinking, prostitution etc., even if the amount involved is insignificant; secondly excessive expenditure on lawful things, whether within or beyond one’s means; thirdly expenditure for good and charitable purposes merely for show.

Islam has condemned extravagance, as it has miserliness, because both these extremes are harmful to Islamic economy. Miserliness withholds community’s resources from being properly utilized; whereas extravagance wastes them on unnecessary and superfluous wants. The Holy Qur’an and the Prophet of Islam have condemned extravagance as follows:

Verses of the Holy Qur’an:

1.   O Children of Adam! Look to your adornment at every place of worship and eat and drink, but be not prodigal. Lo! He loveth not the prodigals.   ––7: 31

2.   Give the kinsman his due, and the needy, and the wayfarer, and squander not (thy wealth) in wantonness. Lo! the squanderers were ever brothers of the devil, and the devil was ever an ingrate to his Lord.   ––17: 26-27

3.   And let not thy hand be chained to thy neck nor open it with a complete opening, lest thou sit down rebuked, denuded.  
   ––17: 29

4.   And those who when they spend, are neither prodigal nor grudging; and there is ever a firm station between the two;  
   ––25: 67

Hadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):

1.    It is reported by Abu Hurairah that the Apostle of Allah once remarked that one thing at which God is most displeased with you is extravagance.   (Muatta Imam Malik)

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VIII – Gambling

Gambling is a great evil which is prohibited in Islam. It is not only a sin to be punished in the Hereafter but is also an offence in Islamic society which renders the culprit liable to punishment in this world.

The word used by the Qur’an for gambling is maisir’ which literally means ‘getting something too easily’ or ‘getting a profit without working for it’. Originally, it stood for a game or play with unfeathered or headless arrows. Gambling can briefly be defined as wagering money or other valuable things upon the outcome of an event or making money upon some chance. Thus it is a game of chance by which you either win or lose. The practice of gambling is in vogue since the time immemorial. According to a writer: “Games of chance’ are as old and as wide-spread as humanity … The Greeks already in Homer had their knuckle-bones … marked with numbers on four sides to serve as dice …… Among the Romans, children played at “heads or tails” with coins …… The Israelites used the drawing of lots to ascertain the Divine will in regard to such matters as assignation of lands, choice of an officer, determining the rotation of office or to identify an offender … The gambling habit infected the purity of the early Christians. Instruments of gambling are found in their tombs …. On the Aryan races gambling has had a special hold”. About the evil of gambling among the pre-Islamic pagan Arabs, Maulana Abdullah Yusuf Ali says: The form most familiar to the Arabs was gambling by casting lots by means of arrows, on the principle of a lottery: The arrows were marked and served the same purpose as a modern lottery ticket. Something, e.g., the carcase of slaughtered animal, was divided into unequal parts. The marked arrows were drawn from a bag. Some were blank and those who drew them got nothing. Others indicated prizes, which were big or small. Whether you got a big share or a small share, or nothing, depended on pure luck, unless there was fraud also on the part of some persons concerned. The principle on which the objection is based is: that, even if there is no fraud you gain what you have not earned, or lose on a mere chance.

The extent to which gambling prevails in the modern world is difficult to assess. Most of it is centred in the horse racing. Dice and wagering are rightly included in the definition of gambling. Modern form of gambling are lottery, betting, cross-word puzzles, card-playing (with bets), prize schemes, etc.

Gambling and all games of chance have been strictly prohibited by the Qur’an. According to the Qur’an, gambling, as wine-drinking, is devil’s handiwork through which he seeks to cast enmity among the people and turns them away from remembrance of God. Gambling, like drinking, has been declared a major sin and followers of Islam have been enjoined upon to refrain from these evils. Thus gambling and all other games of chance are illegal in an Islamic society.

Following are the Verses of al-Qur’an and Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad(PBUH) which ban gambling in a Muslim society:

Verses of the Holy Qur’an:

1.   They question thee about strong drink, and games of chance. Say: In both is great sin, and (some) utility for men; but the sin of them is greater than their usefulness……   ––2: 219

2.   O ye who believe! Strong drink and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan’s handiwork. Leave it aside in order that ye may succeed. Satan seeketh only to cast among you enmity and hatred by means of strong drink and games of chance, and to turn you from remembrance of Allah and from (His) worship. Will ye then have done? Obey Allah and obey the messenger, and beware! But if ye turn away, then know that the duty of Our messenger is only plain conveyance (of the message).   (5: 90-92)

Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):

1.    Abdullah-bin-Amr reported that the messenger of Allah prohibited intoxicants, games of chance, card playing and ghubairah……   (Abu Daud)

2.   Abdullah bin Amr told that the Prophet (PBUH) forbade wine (Khamr), game of chance (Maisir), drum (Kubah) and wine made from millet (Ghubairah) saying: Every intoxicant is forbidden.   (Abu Daud)

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IX – Greed

Greed is insatiate longing for wealth or food or possessions. It is excessive eagerness for gain, property, children, fame, power, or desire to have more than needed. A greedy person has inordinate appetite or craving to possess more and more. Desirous, avaricious, covetous, selfish, eager, ravenous, cupid, are other names of greedy person.

Islam condemns greed for wealth, worldly gains and possessions as it is a disease which arrests the progress of man in the path of Allah. The greed also adversely effects mental and spiritual progress of man as it makes the man acquire as much as he can through foul or illegal means such as theft, plunder, dacoity, corruption, embezzlement, hoarding, business malpractices, etc. Wealth, children and possessions, according to Qur’an, divert the people from remembrance of Allah. Hence the Qur’an calls them a great temptation and a great trial. So it advises the believers not to envy such people who have been given abundance in riches and children as Allah thereby intends but to punish them. The Prophet says that a man’s greed for wealth never ends even if he has been given mountains of gold and only earth (of the grave) fills the belly of the (greedy) man. Therefore, the believers should find riches in self-contentment as it does not lie in vast wealth.

Verses of the Qur’an and Ahadith of Prophet of Islam which highlight Islamic view – point on the evils of greed and exhort the believer to shun greed are:

Verses of the Holy Qur’an:

1.   And thou wilt find them greediest of mankind for life and (greedier) than the idolaters. (Each) one of them would like to be allowed to live a thousand years. And to live (a thousand years) would by no means remove him from the doom. Allah is Seer of what they do.   ––2: Al-Baqarah: 96

2.   And had We willed We could have raised him by their means, but he clung to the earth and followed his own lust. Terefor his likeness is as the likeness of a dog; if thou attackest him he panteth with his tongue out, and if thou leavest him he panteth with his tongue out, Such is the likeness of the people who deny Our revelation. Narrate unto them the history (of the men of old) that haply they may take thought.  
   ––7: Al-A’raf: 176

3.   And know that your possessions and your children are a test, and that with Allah is immense reward.   ––8: Al-Anfal: 28

4.   So let not their riches nor their children please thee (O Muhammad), Allah thereby intendeth but to punish them in the life of the world and that their souls pass away while they are disbelievers.   ––9: At-Taubah: 55

5.   And strain not thine eyes toward that which We cause some wedded pairs among them to enjoy, the flower of the life of the world, that We may try them thereby. The provision of thy Lord is better and more lasting.   ––20: Ta Ha: 131

6.   …… And whoso is saved from his own avarice – such are they who are successful.   ––59: Al-Hashr: 9

7.   Your wealth and your children are only a temptation, whereas Allah! with him is an immense reward.  
   ––64: At-Taqhabun: 15

8.   So keep your duty to Allah as best ye can, and listen, and obey, and spend; that is better for your soul. And whoso is saved from his own greed, such are the successful.  
   ––64: At-Taghabun: 16

9.   Rivalry in worldly increase distracteth you. Until you come to the graves.   (102: Al-Takathur: 1-2)

Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):

1.    Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Wealth is not in vast riches but wealth is in self-contentment.  
   (Bukhari and Muslim)

2.   Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah said: The son of Adam gets old, but his two things remain young in him: Greed for wealth and hope for life.   (Bukhari and Muslim)

3.   Ibn Abbas reported from the Holy Prophet who said: Had there been two mountains of wealth for the son of Adam he would have sought a third one; and nothing but earth can fill up the belly of the son of Adam. And Allan returns to one who returns (to Him) penitently.   (Bukhari and Muslim)

4.   Omar said: O men! Know you must that verily greed is poverty, and despair is wealth, and when a man becomes despaired of a thing he becomes free from it.   (Razin)

5.   Ali reported that the messenger of Allah said: Whoever is pleased with little provision from Allah, Allah will be pleased with few good deeds from him.   (Baihaqi)

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X – Hypocrisy

Hypocrisy in simple dictionary meanings is pretence of virtue or simulation of virtue or goodness. It is the act or practice of simulating or feigning feelings or beliefs, especially the false appearance of piety or virtue. Hypocrisy is, in fact, concealment of true character or belief, a feigning to be what one is not. Hypocrite is a peson who practices hypocrisy. Synonyms of hypocrisy are deceitfulness, dissembling, duplicity, imposture, pretence, deception, two – facedness; whereas synonyms of hypocrite are charlatan, deceiver, dissembler, fraud, imposter, pretender, Holy Willie, phoney.

According to the Qur’an, the revealed book of Islam, the hypocrites are those who say: We believe in Allah and the Last Day, when they believe not; they utter with their mouths a thing which is not in their hearts. When they stand up to worship they perform it languidly and to be seen of men, and remember Allah but little; swaying between this and that belonging neither to these nor to those. The likeness of a hypocrite in the view of Qur’an is that of one who worships Allah upon a narrow marge so that if good befalls him he is happy, but if a trial befalls him he falls away. Thus the tongue and the mind of a hypocrite or what he says and what he does is not one. A believer, on the other hand, is one in mind and tongue as he believes in Allah and His apostle in heart and utters the same from his tongue.

During the early period of a revolutionary or reform or religious movement, there emerges a class who joins hands with the revolutionaries and reformers and apparently acts and speaks like them. But actually it is a class of hypocrites who are in their heart of hearts, deadly opposed to the movement being agents of the old order. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his followers also faced such a class when they migrated to Mdinah and were trying to establish themselves there. A group of Madinites apparently embraced Islam, professed alligiance to the Prophet, performed acts of Islamic faith like Muslims, but secretly connived with the enemies of Islam and missed no opportunity to harm the Muslims and their cause. This group of people was led by Abdullah bin Ubbey, the chief of the tribe of Banu Khazrij. They joined hands with the Jews of Madinah and pagan Quraish of Makkah and left no stone unturned to ruin Islam and the Muslims. Therefore they were called hypocrites. The Prophet and the believers were warned to be vigilant about their activities. They were condemned by Allah as disbelievers and were threatened with a painful doom.

Islam condemns hypocrisy in the severest possible terms. According to the Qur’an, the hypocrites will be in the lowest deep of the Hell. The Holy Prophet was exhorted to fight against the hypocrites as against the disbelievers. The Prophet was forbidden to seek forgiveness for the hypocrites as Allah would not forgive them even if the forgiveness for them is sought seventy times. The Prophet and the believers were also forbidden to offer the funeral prayer on the death of hypocrite. Thus the sin of hypocrisy, according to Islam, is bigger than that of disbelief.

Following are the verses of the Holy Qur’an and Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) which explain hypocrisy, highlight the traits of hypocrites and discuss the consequences of this evil of hypocrisy:

Verses of the Holy Qur’an:

1.   And of mankind are some who say: We believe in Allah and the last Day when they believe not. They think to beguile Allah and those who believe, and they beguile none save themselves; but they perceive not. In their hearts is a disease, and Allah increaseth their disease. A painful doom is theirs because they lie.   ––2: Al-Baqarah :8-10

2.   And that He might know the hypocrite5 unto whom it was said: Come, fight in the way of Allah, or defend yourselves. They answered: If we knew aught of fighting we would follow you. On that day they were nearer disbelief than faith. They utter with their mouths a thing which is not in their hearts. Allah is best aware of what they hide. Those who, while they sat at home, said of their brethren (who were fighting for the cause of Allah): If they had been guided by us they would not have been slain. Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Then avert death from yourselves if ye are truthful.   ––3: Al-lmran:167-168

3.   Bear unto the hypocrites the tidings that for them there is a painful doom; Those who choose disbelievers for their friends instead of believers! Do they look for power at their hands? Lo! all power appertaineth to Allah.   ––4: An-Nisa: 138-139

4.   Lo! the hypocrites seek to beguile Allah, but it is Allah Who beguileth them. When they stand up to worship they perform it languidly and to be seen of men, and are mindful of Allah but little; Swaying between this (and that), (belonging) neither to these nor to those. He whom Allah causeth to go astray thou (O Muhammad) will not find a way for him.  
   ––4: An-Nisa: 142 – 143

5.   Lo! the hypocrites (will be) in the lowest deep of the fire, and thou wilt find no helper for them;   ––4: An-Nisa: 145

6.   The hypocrites, both men and women proceed one from another. They enjoin the wrong and they forbid the right and they withhold their hands (from spending for the cause of Allah). They forget Allah, so He hath forgotten them. Lo! the hypocrites, they are the transgressors. Allah promiseth the hypocrites, both men and women, and the disbelievers fire of Hell for their abode. It will suffice them. Allah curseth them, and theirs is the lasting torment.   ––9: At-Taubah:67-68

7.   O Prophet! Strive against the disbelievers and the hypocrites! Be harsh with them. Their ultimate abode is hell, a hapless journey’s end.   ––9: At-Taubah: 73

8.   Ask forgiveness for them (O Muhammad), or ask not forgiveness for them; though thou ask forgiveness for them seventy times, Allah will not forgive them. That is because they disbelieved in Allah and His messenger, and Allah guideth not wrongdoing folk.   ––9: At-Taubah: 80

9.   And never (O Muhammad) pray for one of them who dieth, not stand by his grave, Lo! they disbelieved in Allah and His messenger, and they died while they were evil-doers. Let not their wealth nor their children astonish thee! Allah purposeth only to punish them thereby in the world, and that their souls shall pass away while they are disbelievers.  
   ––9: At-Taubah: 84 – 85

10.   And among mankind is he who worshippeth Allah upon a narrow marge so that if good befalleth him he is content therewith, but if a trial befalleth him, he falleth away utterly. He loseth both the world and the Hereafter. That is the sheer loss.   ––22: Al-Hajj: 11

11.   Of mankind is he who saith: we believe in Allah, but, if he be made to suffer for the sake of Allah, he mistaketh the persecution of mankind for Allah’s punishment; and then, if victory cometh from Lord, will say: Lo! we were with you (all the while). Is not Allah best aware of what is in the bosoms of (His) creatures? Verily Allah knoweth those who believe, and verily He knoweth the hypocrites.   ––29: Al-Ankabut: 10-11

12.   When the hypocrites come unto thee (O Muhammad), they say: we bear witness that thou art indeed Allah’s Messenger. And Allah knowth that thou art indeed His messenger and Allah beareth witness that the Hypocrites are speaking falsely. They make their faith a pretext so that they may turn (men) from the way of Allah. Verily evil is that which they are wont to do. That is because they believed, then disbelieved, therefore, their hearts are sealed so that they understand not.  
   ––63: Al-Munafiqun: 1-3

Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):

1.    Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: The signs of a hypocrite are three. When he talks, he speaks falsehood; and when he promises, he breaks and when he is entrusted, commits treachery.   (Bukhari and Muslim)
(And Muslim add: Even though he keeps fasts, prays and thinks that he is a Muslim).

2.   Abdullah-b-Amr reported: That the Messenger of Allah said: Whoso has got four things in him is a true hypocrite, and whoso has got a habit therefrom in him has got in him a habit of hypocrisy till he gives it up; when he is trusted, he is unfaithful; and when he speaks, he speaks falsehood; and when he makes promise, he proves treacherous, and when he quarrels, he commits sin.   (Bukhari and Muslim)

3.   Ibn Omar reported that the Messenger of Allah said: The parable of a hypocrite is as a goat roaming between two goats going once unto this and once unto that.   (Muslim)

4.   Huzaifa reported: Hypocrisy existed at the time of the Messenger of Allah. As for now, it is either infidelity or faith.  
   (Bukhari)

5.   Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Two traits cannot unite in a hypocrite-good conduct and knowledge of religion.   (Tirmizi)

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XI – Miserliness

Miser is one who hoards wealth and lives in a wretched and miserable condition. A niggard and an avaricious person who leads a wretched life in order to save and hoard money; he is a greedy hoarder of wealth. Niggardly, close-fisted, covetous, parsimonious, lightfisted, penurious, ungenerous are some of his other names.

Infaq or Nafqa, according to Islamic law, means expenses for necessities of life like food, clothing and lodging of oneself and one’s family. If expenditure is excessive than what prudence requires, it is extravagance or prodigality; and if it is less than the requirement, then it is miserliness or niggardliness. Thus miser is one, in the language of Islamic law, who does not spend what is absolutely necessary for himself and his family despite the fact that Allah has bestowed upon him sufficient means. There is no absolute standard of household and personal expenses prescribed by Islam. Such expenses depend on the condition of one’s prosperity and hence would vary from person to person. Therefore, miser would be one who spends much less than required by his circumstances and extravagant would be one who spends much more than the need. Islam requires that its followers should spend, if they are in easy circumstances, for others also who are needy. A miser is not charitably disposed to others. He is niggardly in spending for the poor and destitutes. Both the Qur’an and the Prophet of Islam have condemned miserliness and have threatened the miser with dire consequences and shameful doom. The verses of the Qur’an and Ahadith of Muhammad(PBUH), which are being reproduced below, are self-explanatory and unanimously condemn miserliness.

Verses of the Holy Qur’an:

1.   And let not those who hoard up that which Allah hath bestowed upon them of His bounty think that it is better for them. Nay, it is worse for them. That which they hoard will be their collar on the Day of Resurrection. Allah’s is the heritage of the heavens and the earth, and Allah is Informed of what ye do.   ––3: 180

2.   Who hoard their wealth and enjoin avarice on others, and hide that which Allah hath bestowed upon them of His bounty. For disbelievers We prepare a shameful doom;   ––4: 37

3.   They who hoard up gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah, unto them give tidings (O Muhammad) of a painful doom. On the Day when it will (all) be heated in the fire of hell and their foreheads and their flanks and their backs will be branded therewith (and it will be said unto them): Here is that which ye hoarded for yourselves. Now taste of what ye used to hoard!   ––9: 34-35

4.   And let not thy hand be chained to thy neck nor open it with a complete opening, lest thou sit down rebuked, denuded.  
   ––17: 29

5.   But as for him who hoardeth and deemeth himself independent and disbelieveth in goodness; Surely We will ease his way unto adversity. His riches will not save him when he perisheth.

6.   Woe unto every slandering traducer, who hath gathered wealth (of this world), and arranged it. He thinketh that his wealth will render him immortal.   ––104: 1-3

Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):

1.    Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: There is no day wherein a servant gets up at morn but two angels do not ome down. One of them say: O Allah! give the charitable man success. Another say: O Allah! give the miser destruction.   (Bukhari and Muslim)

2.   Asmma’s reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Spend and don’t count lest Allah count for you, and don’t hoard up lest Allah withhold from you. Spend what you can.  
   (Bukhari and Muslim)

3.   Abu Omamah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: O son of Adam! that you spend wealth is good for you and that you withhold it is bad for you, and you should not be backbited for miserliness. Begin with those who are in your family.   (Muslim)

4.    Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: The likeness of the miser and the charitable man is the likeness of two men upon whom there are two helmets of iron which their hands tied up to their chests and throats. Whenever the charitable man gives alms, it unloosens; and whenever the miser intends to give alms, it tightens up and overtakes every ring in its place.   (Bukhari and Muslim)

5.   Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: The generous man is near Allah, near Paradise, near the people and far off from Hell; and the miser is far off from Allah, far off from Paradise, far off from the people and near Hell; and the illiterate charitable man is dearer to Allah than the pious miser.   (Tirmizi)

6.   Abu Sayeed reported that the Messenger of Allah said: There are two habits which do not unite in a believer – miserliness and bad conduct.   (Tirmizi)

7.   Abu Bakr Siddiq reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Neither the diplomat, nor the miser nor the hard-hearted shall enter Paradise.   (Tirmizi)

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XII – Oppression

Dictionary meaning of oppression are: to overwhelm with superior weight or numbers or irresistible power; lie heavy on, weigh down (spirits or imagination, etc); govern tyrannically, keep under by pressure, subject to continual cruelty or injustice. Synonyms of oppression are injustice, cruelty, tyranny, brutality persecution, subjection, maltreatment. Its antonyms are justice, benevolence, clemency, compassion, kindness, mercy, tenderness.

The term oppression, cruelty, or tyranny have not been defined by the Qur’an or Hadith in explicit words. According to Muslim jurists, justice is to keep a thing in its proper place, to equalize, to give one what is exactly due to him. Thus oppression on the contrary would mean to take out a thing from its proper place and setting to place it where it should not be, to disturb equality and harmony or to give one less than due.

Oppression has been severely condemned by Islam in very clear terms. Oppressors have been called transgressors and wrong does and have been threatened with painful doom. Examples of oppression given by the Qur’an include: Hiding of testimony; transgressing Allah’s limits; spending not of that which Allah has given; inventing falsehood against Allah; devouring wealth of others through aggression and unjust means; denying the revelations of Allah; judging not by that which Allah has revealed, ascribing partners unto Allah; persecution of the weak, etc.

Following are the Verses of the Qur’an and Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) which enlighten us regarding Islamic view-point on oppression.

Verses of the Holy Qur’an:

1.   And who is more unjust than he who hideth a testimony which he hath received from Allah? Allah is not unaware of what ye do.   ––2: Al-Baqarah: 140

2.   And slay them wherever ye find them, and drive them out of the places whence they drove you out, for persecution is worse than slaughter……   ––2: Al-Baqarah: 191

3.   They question thee (O Muhammad) with regard to warfare in the sacred month, Say: warfare therein is a great (transgression), but to turn (men) from they way of Allah and to disbelieve in Him and in the Inviolable Place of worship, and to expel his people thence, is a greater with Allah; for persecution is worse than killing……   ––2: Al-Baqarah: 217

4.   …… These are the limits (imposed by) Allah. Transgress them not. For whoso transgresseth Allah’s limits, such are wrongdoers.   ––2: Al-Baqarah: 229

5.   O ye who believe! Spend of that wherewith We have provided you ere a day come when there will be no trafficking, nor friendship, nor intercession. The disbelievers, they are the wrongdoers.   ––2: Al-Baqarah: 254

6.   And whosoever shall invent falsehood after that concerning Allah, such will be wrongdoers.   ––3: Al-Imran: 94

7.   O ye who believe! Squander not your wealth among yourselves in vanity – except it be a trade by mutual consent, and kill not one another. Lo! Allah is ever merciful unto you. Whoso doth that through aggression and injustice, We shall cast him into Fire, and that is ever easy for Allah.  
   ––4: An-Nisa: 29-30

8.   Yet whoso doeth evil or wrongeth his own soul, then seeketh pardon of Allah, will find Allah Forgiving, Merciful.  
   ––4: An-Nisa: 110

9.   Allah loveth not the utterance of harsh speech save by one who hath been wronged. Allah is ever Hearer, Knower.  
   ––4: An-Nisa: 148

10.   ……Whoso judgeth not by that which Allah hath revealed: such are wrongdoers.   ––5: Al-Maidah: 45

11.   Who doth greater wrong than he who inventeth a lie against Allah and denieth his revelations? Lo! the wrongdoers will not be successful.   ––6: 21

12.   Sanction is given unto those who fight because they have been wronged; and Allah is indeed Able to give them victory;  
   ––22: 39

13.   ……Ascibe no partners unto Allah. Lo! to ascribe partners (unto Him) is a tremendous wrong.   ––31: 13

Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):

1.    Ibn Omar reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Oppression will be intense darkness on the Resurrection Day.  
   (Bukhari and Muslim)

2.   Abu Musa reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Allah gives respite to the oppressor, till when He overtake him, He does not exempt him. Then he recited: And such is the punishment of your Lord when He punishes the towns which are unjust; surely His punishment is painful, severe.  
   (Bukhari and Muslim)

3.   Sayeed b-Zaid reported that the Messenger of Allah said: If anyone takes a span of land by oppression, its extent taken from seven earths will he tied round his neck on the Resurrection Day.   (Bukhari and Muslim)

4.   Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Whenever a transgressor is praised, the Almighty Allah becomes angry and the Throne shakes on its account.   (Baihaqi)

5.   Ali reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Beware of the invocation of the oppressed person, because he will ask his right to Allah, and Allah does not deny the right of a man having right.   (Baihaqi)

6.   Aus-b-Shorahbil reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: Whoever walks with a tyrant to empower him knowing that he is a tyrant has indeed gone out of Islam.   (Baihaqi)

7.   Abu Hurrah Al Rakkashi reported from his uncle that the Messenger of Allah said: Behold! Do not oppress; behold! Property of a man is not lawful (for you) except with his willful consent.   (Baihaqi)

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XIII – Pride

Dictionary meaning of pride are: unduly high opinion of one’s own qualities, merits, etc. arrogant bearing or conduct. Vanity, arrogance, conceit, egotism, haughtiness, boastfulness, vainglory are all synonyms of pride; whereas humility, meakness and modesty are some of its antonyms. Objects in which pride is taken are: ancestry, tribe, wealth, power, physical strength, beauty, learning and knowledge, social status, personal achievements; even pride is taken in excessive divine service. The worst type of pride is that which is expressed against God, Prophet and religion. Iblis, Namrud, Pharaoh, Qarun, Shaddad, tribal chiefs who opposed various prophets are the examples which have been given by the Qur’an of this type of pride. The next worst to this type of pride is that which is expressed in relation to men. The wealthy, the powerful, the strong, those having more influence and following, the learned, those belonging to feudal families, etc despise the poor, the less powerful, the weak, the less connected, the illiterate, and the persons of modest or humble background.

Pride in any form and against anyone is condemnable. “Pride hath a fall” is the general saying. No religion, no system of morality ever praises the proud and boastful men who bring the people, religion, things and institutions to ridicule.

Islam regards pride as one of the worst attributes of mankind. The Qur’an tells us how Iblis was expelled from Paradise and declared outcast because of pride and how persons like Pharaoh of Egypt, Korah (Qarun) of Bani Israel and Namrud of Iraq were humiliated because of their arrogance against God and God’s messengers. According to the Qur’an, God does not like the proud and boastful and such people would enter Hell and remain therein for ever. According to a Hadith of Prophet of Islam, pride is Allah’s sheet and greatness is His garment and whosoever vies with Allah in these two, Allah would throw him in the Hell. According to another saying of the Prophet, a man with an atom of pride in him shall not enter Paradise.

Following Verses of the Qur’an and Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) condemn the proud and boastful persons threatening them with painful doom.

Verses of the Holy Qur’an:

1.   ……Lo! Allah loveth not such as are proud and boastful:  
   ––4: An-Nisa: 36

2.   Then, as for those who believed and did good works, unto them will He pay their wages in full, adding unto them of His bounty; and as for those who were scornful and proud, them will He punish with a painful doom……   ––4: An-Nisa: 173

3.   He said: what hindered thee that thou didst not fall prostrate when I bade thee? (Iblis) said: I am better than him. Thou createdst me of fire while him Thou didst create of mud. He said :Then go down hence! It is not for thee to show pride here, so go forth! Lo! thou art of those degraded.  
   ––7: Al-Araf: 12-13

4.   But they who deny Our revelations and scorn them – such are rightful owners of the Fire, They will abide therein.  
   ––7: Al-Araf: 36

5.   Lo! they who deny our revelations and scorn them, for them the gates of Heaven will not be opened nor will they enter the Garden until the camel goeth through the needle’s eye. Thus do we requite the guilty.   ––7: Al-Araf: 40

6.   Your God is one God. But as for those who believe not in the Hereafter their hearts refuse to know, for they are proud. Assuredly Allah knoweth that which they keep hidden and that which they proclaim. Lo! He loveth not the proud.  
   ––16: An-Nahl: 22-23

7.   So enter the gates of Hell, to dwell therein for ever. Woeful indeed will be the lodging of the arrogant.   ––16: An-Nahl: 29

8.   And walk not in the earth exultant. Lo! thou canst not rend the earth, nor canst thou stretch to the height of the hills.  
    ––17: Bani Isra’il: 37

9.   Then We sent Moses and his brother Aaron with our tokens and a clear warrant unto Pharaoh his chiefs, but they scorned (them) and they were despotic folk. And they said: Shall we put faith in two mortals like ourselves, and whose folk are servile unto us? So they denied them and became of those who were destroyed.   ––23: Al-Mominun: 45-48

10.   Turn not thy cheek in scorn toward folk, nor walk with pertness in the land. Lo! Allah loveth not each braggart boaster.   ––31: Luqman: 18

11.   That ye grieve not for the sake of that which hath escaped you, nor yet exult because of that which hath been given. Allah loveth not all prideful boasters.   ––57: Al-Hadid: 23

Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):

1.   Haresah-b-Wahab reported that the Messenger of Allah said: shall I not inform you about the inmates of Paradise? – every meak, modest man. If he adjures God, He creatainly fulfills it. Shall I not inform you about the inmates of Hell? – every ignoble, uncivil proud man.   (Bukhari and Muslim)

2.   Ibn Mas’ud reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Nobody who has got faith in his heart to the weight of a mustard seed shall enter the fire and nobody who has got pride in his heart to the weight of a mustard seed shall enter Paradise.   (Muslim)

3.   Ibn Mas’ud reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Whoso has got pride in his heart to the weight of an atom shall not enter Paradise. A man enquired about a man who likes that his dress shall be fine and his shoes shall be fine. He said: Allah is beautiful and likes beauty. Pride is (a cause of) disclaiming truth and despising people.   (Muslim)

4.   Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said that the Almighty Allah had revealed: Pride is My sheet and Greatness is My garment. So whoso vies with Me regarding, any of these two, I shall admit him in the fire. (And in a narration: I shall throw him into the fire).   (Muslim)

5.   Abu Hurairah reported God’s Messenger as saying, “There are three types of whom God will not speak on the day of resurrection and whom He will not purify (a version has ‘and at whom He will not look’), and they will have a painful punishment; an old man who commits fornication, a king who is a great liar, and a poor man who is proud.”   (Muslim)

6.   Amr-b-Shuaib reported from his father who from his grandfather that the Messenger of Allah said: The proud will be gathered together on the Resurrection Day like seeds in forms of men. Disgrace shall surround them from every place. They will be driven to a prison in hell named Bulas. The hottest fire will rise over them. They will be given to drink the squeezings of the inmates of the fire which are poisonous things.   (Tirmizi)

7.   Abu Hurairah reported the Prophet as saying, “Let people cease to boast about their ancestors who have died, who are merely fuel in jahannam; or they will certainly be of less account with God than the beetle which rolls dung with its nose. God has removed from you the pride of the pre-Islamic period and its boasting in ancestors. One is only a pious believer or a miserable sinner. All men are sons of Adam, and Adam came from dust.”   (Tirmizi, Abu Daud)

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XIV – Show

The word show (Riya) has variety of meanings. But here it is being taken to mean showing off; to make display of one’s accomplishments for impressing others; to cause others to see; and to show one’s good acts like piety, charitableness, humility, austerity, etc to get people’s admiration and applause. Alike or similar words for show in this shade of meaning are affectation, display, exhibitionism, pomp, pageantry, showiness, ostentation, ostentatiousness, pretenee, pretentiousness, dissimulation, hypocrisy.

The above mentioned version of show has been severely condemned by Islam in all its forms i.e. in appearance, in talk, in conduct, in behaviour, in manners, in religious acts, etc. Some make display of their wealth, some make display of their clothes and ornaments, some make display of their virtuous acts like charity, some people appear to be very sweet in talk and boastfully narrate their achievements, some make their appearances like those of saints and pious persons, some people make display of their religious acts. All this is done by these people for merely show off in order to win fame, praise and popularity. They do it artificially or ostensibly and not from the sincerity of heart.

The worst type of show is, however, in religious affairs. Some people make display of their religious acts like prayers, payment of Zakat and charity, fasting, etc. in order to be seen of men and to win admiration of others but not with sincere hearts to please Allah. Both the Qur’an and the Prophet of Islam have disapproved this type of show. According to the Prophet, show is secret polytheism.

Verses of the Holy Qur’an:

1.   O ye who believe! Render not vain your almsgiving by reproach and injury, like him who spendeth his wealth only to be seen of men and believeth not in Allah and the Last Day…….   ––2: 264

2.   If ye publish your almsgiving, it is well, but if ye hide it and give it to the poor, it will be better for you, and will atone for some of your ill-deeds. Allah is Informed of what ye do.  
   ––2: 271

3.   And (also) those who spend their wealth in order to be seen of men, and believe not in Allah nor the Last Day. Whoso taketh Satan for a comrade, a bad comrade hath he.   ––4: 38

4.   Lo! the hypocrites seek to beguile Allah, but it is Allah Who beguileth them. When they stand up to worship they perform it languidly and to be seen of men, and are mindful of Allah but little;    ––4: 142

5.   But not as those who came from their dwellings boastfully and to be seen of men, and debar (men) from the way of Allah, while Allah is surrounding all they do.   ––8: 47

6.   So woe to the worshippers who are neglectful of their prayers, those who (want but) to be seen (of men), but refuse (to supply) (even) neighbourly needs.   ––107: 4-7

Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):

1.    Jundab reported that the Holy Prophet said: Whoso seeks fame, Allah will make him famous; and whoso does for show, Allah will make a show of him.   (Bukhari and Muslim)

2.   Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Seek refuge to Allah from the valley of grief. They asked: O Messenger of Allah! What is the valley of grief? He replied: A valley in hell from which hell itself seeks refuge every day for 400 times. It was questioned; O Messenger of Allah! who will enter it? He said: The readers of the Qur’an who are ostentatious in their deeds.   (Tirmizi, Ibn Majah)

3.   Omar-b-Al Khattab reported that he came out one day towards the mosque of the Messenger of Allah and found Mu’az-b-Jabal sitting near the mausoleum of the Holy Prophet and weeping. He asked: What makes you weep? He replied: Something which I heard from the Messenger of Allah makes me weep. I heard the Holy Prophet say: The slightest show is polytheism, and whoso has got enmity with a friend of Allah, he will meet Allah with a fighting spirit. Allah loves the virtuous, the pious, the unostentatious; who when they remain absent are not sought for, and when they are present are not invited and treated with honour. Their hearts are the lights of guidance and they come out from every dusty and dark place.  
   (Ibn Majah)

4.   Abu Sayeed reported; The Messenger of Allah came out to us while we were talking about Anti-Christ. He said: Shall I inform you which is more fearful for you to me than Anti-Christ? ‘Yes’, we replied! ‘O Messenger of Allah’. He said: secret polytheism; it means that a man will stand up and pray and then prolong his prayers that he may fall in the sight of a man.   (Ibn Majah)

5.   Abdullah-b-Amr reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah say; Whoever makes his action published to the people, Allah will convey it to the ears of His creation and He will disgrace and humiliate him.   (Baihaqi)

6.   Shaddad-b-Aus reported; I heard the Messenger of Allah say: Whoever prays for show commits polytheism; and whoever fasts for show, commits polytheism; and whoever gives charity for show, commits polytheism.   (Ahmad)

7.   Shaddad bin Aus reported that he wept. He was asked: What made you weep? He replied: Something which I heard the Messenger of Allah say; and I remembered it and it caused me to weep. I heard the Messenger of Allah say: I fear polytheism and secret sexual passion for my followers. I enquired: O Messenger of Allah! will your followers commit polytheism after you? ‘Yes’ replied he, behold! They will worship not the sun, moon, stone or idol but they will be ostentatious in their deeds. And secret sexual passion means that someone of them will get at dawn fasting and when his passion out of his passions will present itself to him, he will give up fasting.   (Ahmad)

8.   Mahmud-b-Labeed reported that the Messenger of Allah said: The thing I fear most for you is the lesser polytheism. They asked: O Messenger of Allah; what is the lesser polytheism? He said: Show.   (Ahmad, Baihaqi)

9.   Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Surely the first man who will be brought for judgment on the Resurrection Day will be one who was (well-known as) a martyr. He will be brought and be reminded of the favours on him which he will recognize. Then He (Allah) will ask: What did you do therein? He will reply: I fought for Thee till I was a martyr. He will retort: You have spoken falsehood; nay, you have fought for being called a hero, and surely you have been so called. Then the order (of judgment) will be passed against him and consequently he will be dragged down upon his face till he will be thrown into Hell. Another will be the man who acquired knowledge and taught it (to men) and read the Qur’an. He will be brought for judgment and be reminded of the favours on him which he will recognize. Allah will ask him: What did you do therein? He will reply: I acquired learning and taught it and read the Qur’an for Thee. He will say: You have spoken falsehood, and you have acquired learning that you might be called a learned man and you have read the Qur’an that you might be called a reader and you were so called. Then order will be passed against him and so he will be dragged down upon his face till he will be thrown into Hell. Another man whom Allah gave ample wealth and whom He gave of every description will be brought and be reminded of the favours on him which he will recognize. He will ask: What did you do therein? He will reply: I left not a single way wherein Thou desired to be spend but that I did not spend it therein for Thy sake. He will retort: Surely you have spoken falsehood; nay, you spent it that you might be called a philanthropic man and you were so called. Then order will be passed against him and so he will be dragged upon his face and will be thrown into Hell.   (Muslim)

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XV – Suspicion

To suspect means to doubt; to mistrust; to imagine to be guilty; to be ready to believe but without sufficient evidence; to conjecture; to distrust; hold to be uncertain; doubt the genuineness or truth of; to have a vague belief or fear of the existence of (as to suspect danger). Suspicion means feeling or state of mind of one who suspects; suspect or being suspected. It is partial or unconfirmed belief especially that something is wrong or someone is guilty. It is thought or impression that there is probably something wrong, without clear proof or evidence. Conjecture, doubt, misgiving, distrust, mistrust, skepticism are some of the similar words of suspicion.

Islam dislikes harbouring of suspicions and doubts about religious truths, religious belief, religious books, prophets of God, and about the things whose knowledge is only with God and which are not known to human beings. Islam also dislikes that its followers should entertain unnecessary and imaginery suspicions or doubts (without clear proof or evidence) just on the basis of conjecture or guess about the conduct, character and acts of their companions.

Following are the Verses of the Qur’an and Ahadith of the Prophet of Islam about suspicion:

Verses of the Holy Qur’an:

1.   This is the scripture whereof there is no doubt, a guidance unto those who ward off (evil).   ––2:2

2.   And if ye are in doubt concerning that which We reveal unto Our slave (Muhammad), Then produce a Surah of the like thereof, and call your witness beside Allah if ye are truthful.  
   ––2: 23

3.   Most of them follow naught but conjecture. Assuredly conjecture can by no means take the place of truth. Lo! Allah is Aware of what they do.   10: 36

4.   Hath not the history of those before you reached you: the folk of Noah, and the tribes of Aad and Thamud, and those after them? None save Allah knoweth them. Their messengers came unto them with clear proofs but they thrust their hands into their mouths, and said: Lo! We disbelieve in that wherewith ye have been sent, and lo! we are in grave doubt concerning that to which ye call us.   ––14: 9

5.   ……And those who were made to inherit the scripture after them are verily in hopeless doubt concerning it.   ––42: 14

6.   O ye who believe! Shun much suspicion; for lo! some suspicion is a crime. And spy not, neither backbite one another. Would one of you love to eat the flesh of his dear brother? Ye abhor that (so abhor the other)! And keep your duty (to Allah). Lo! Allah is Relenting, Merciful.   (49: 12)

Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):

1.    Ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) reported that a man was brought to the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). He was informed that so and so had drunk wine because his beard was giving out the smell of it. He said: We have been prohibited from finding faults. We can take him to task only if blemish is overt.   (Abu Daud)

2.   Abu Hurairah (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: Beware of suspicion, for suspicion is the worst of false tale. Do not look for the others faults. Do not do spy upon one another, and do not hanker after which other rave. Do not be jealous of one another and do not nurse enmity against others. Do not severe ties with one another. O’ Allah’s worshippers! Become brethren.   (Muslim)

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XVI – Telling Lie

To tell lie means to speak falsely or to tell untruth knowingly; to express what is false or convey a false impression. Lie is an intentional untruth. It is a false statement with intent to deceive. Its synonyms are: deceit, fabrication, falsehood, misrepresentation, perjury, dissimulation.

Islam condemns falsehood in the severest possible terms and the Qur’an, its revealed book, enjoins upon its followers to shun the filth of idols and of telling lie. Thus, idol-worship and lie are, in a way, equal in sin according to the Qur’an. Allah does not guide a lier, an ingrate and a prodigal, as stressed by the Qur’an. Liers are those who do not believe in Allah and invent lie against Allah. Lying and hypocrisy are also the same thing. According to Prophet of Islam, lie is a sin equal to polytheism and disobedience to parents. The fasting of a man is meaningless if he goes on speaking lie during fast. Telling lie is one of the characteristic of hypocrisy. Truth leads to Paradise while falsehood leads to Hell. Narrating without ascertaining its truth whatever one hears amounts to telling lie.

However Islam is a religion of nature and is a practical religion. In very critical situations as that of war, telling lie can be condoned if it helps in saving life or serving any interest of war. Similarly, to tell lie is permitted if it serves a noble cause like making reconciliation and peace between two contending Muslims or if it helps wife or husband to please each other.

Following are the Verses of the Qur’an and traditions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) which highlight Islamic teachings on this issue:

Verses of the Holy Qur’an:

1.   Who doth greater wrong than he who inventeth a lie against Allah and denieth His revelations? Lo! the wrong-doers will not succeed.   ––6: 21

2.   ……Then who doth greater wrong than he who deviseth a lie concerning Allah, that he may lead mankind astray without knowledge! Lo! Allah guideth not wrong-doing folk.   ––6: 144

3.   Only they invent falsehood who believe not in Allah’s revelations and (only) they are the liers.   ––16: 105

4.   And speak not, concerning that which your own tongues qualify (as clean or unclean), the falsehood: “This is lawful and this forbidden,” So that ye invent a lie against Allah. Lo! those who invent a lie against Allah will not succeed.   ––16: 116

5.   ……So shun the filth of idols, and shun lying speech.   ––22:30

6.   Why did they not produce four witnesses? Since they produce not witnesses, they verily are liers in the sight of Allah.    ––24:13

7.   ……Lo! Allah guideth not him who is a liar, an ingrare.   ––39: 3

8.   ……Lo! Allah guideth not one who is a prodigal, a liar.   ––40: 28

9.   Such of you as put away your wives (by saying they are their mothers) they are not their mothers, none are their mothers except those who gave them birth – they indeed utter an ill word and a lie. And lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.   ––58: 2

10.   When the hypocrites come unto thee (O Muhammad), they say: we bear witness that thou art indeed Allah’s messenger. And Allah knoweth that thou art indeed His messenger, and Allah beareth witness that the hypocrites are speaking falsely.  
   ––63:1

Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):

1.   Ibn Umar reported God’s Messenger as saying, “When a man lies the angel removes a mile from him because of the bad odour of what he has produced.”   (Tirmizi)

2.   Sufyan b. Asad al-Hadrami told that he heard God’s messenger say, “It is great treachery that you should tell your brother something and have him believe you when you are lying.”   (Abu Daud)

3.   Ammar reported God’s messenger as saying, “He who is two-faced in this world will have two tongues of fire on the day of resurrection.”   (Darimi)

4.   Ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: Truth leads to piety and piety leads to Paradise. A man persists in speaking the truth till he is enrolled near Allah as a great truthful man. Falsehood leads to transgression and transgression leads to the fire of Hell. A man continues to speak falsehood till he is enrolled as a great liar in the sight of Allah.   (Bukhari and Muslim)

5.   Abdullah bin Amr Ibn al-As (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: Whosoever possesses these four characteristics is a sheer hypocrite and any one who possesses one of them possesses a characteristic of hypocrisy till he gives it up; when he talks, he tells a lie; when he makes a covenant, he acts treacherously; and when he quarrels; he deviates from the truth (he begins to abuse).   (Bukhari and Muslim)

6.   Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) reported the messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) as saying: The worst lie is that a man should pretend to have seen what he has not seen.   (Bukhari)

7.   Abu Hurairah (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings Allah be upon him) said: It is enough for a man to prove him a liar that he should go on narrating whatever he hears.   (Muslim)

8.   Samura (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: He who attributes to me something which is false according to his knowledge is one of the liars.   (Muslim)

9.   Anas reported God’s messenger as saying, “He who abandons lying, having been false, will have a castle built for him just within paradise; he who abandons disputing, having been speaking the truth, will have one built for him in the middle of paradise; and he whose character is good will have one built for him in the highest part of it.”   (Tirmizi)

10.   Abu Bakrah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Shall I not inform about the greatest of sins? Behold! Setting up a partner with Allah, disobedience to parents and false talk.  
   (Bukhari and Muslim)

11.   Asma bin Yazid reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Falsehood is not lawful except in three (things): Falsehood of a man to his wife to please her, falsehood in war and falsehood in restoring peace among men.   (Ahmad, Tirmizi)

12.   Bahaj bin Hakim reported from his father who from his grandfather that the Messenger of Allah said: Woe to him who holds talk and talks falsehood to make people laugh thereby. Woe to him.   (Tirmizi, Ahmad, Abu Daud, Darimi)

13.   Safwan b. Sulaim said God’s messenger was asked whether a believer could be a coward and replied, “Yes.” He was asked whether a believer could be miser and replied, “Yes.” He was asked whether a believer could be a great liar and replied, “No.”   (Malik and Baihaqi)

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XVII – Wine-Drinking

Wine drinking is a great vice and Islam absolutely prohibits wine – drinking and taking of drugs which produce intoxication such as opium, heroine, hash, etc. Some people are so strict in interpreting of Islamic law on this point that they bring even use of tobbaco and smoking under this ban. Taking of intoxicants is not only a sin to be punished in the Hereafter but it is also an offence punishable in this world.

The word used by the Qur’an in its Verse 219 of Chapter 2 and Verse 90 of Chapter 5, is Khamr. The word ‘Khamr’ is derived from ‘Khamara’ which means ‘he concealed’ or obscured’. The khamr’ thus denotes every substance or intoxicating thing the use of which obscures or covers the intellect. Hence, the prohibition of intoxicant promulgated by this verse is not restricted merely to alcoholic drinks but also includes drugs which have a similar effect. This is the view based on many authentic Ahadith according to which the Prophet is reported to have declared: “Every intoxicant is unlawful”. “Every liquor which intoxicates is forbidden”. “Every intoxicant is Khamr and every intoxicant is forbidden”. The Prophet of Islam is also reported to have said: “Wine is made from grape-syrup, raisins, dried dates, wheat, barley, millet, and I forbid you from every intoxicant”. According to another Hadith, the Messenger of Allah forbade every intoxicant and everything which produces languidness. The Prophet also closed the door of taking wine calling it by another name when he said: “Some of my people will assuredly drink wine calling it by another name”. The wine also cannot be converted into vinegar and used. Umar is reported to have defined Khamr as everything that dulls the faculty of thinking.

It is no excuse that little quantity of wine does not intoxicate and, therefore there is no harm in taking it. The basic principle laid down by the Sunnah is: “What intoxicates in greater quantity is unlawful also in its small quantity”.

No pretext or excuse can justify taking of wine or any other intoxicant. It is reported that a companion asked the Prophet: “Is one permitted to use wine as medicine? “The Prophet replied: “No, it is not a medicine but a disease”. Another person asked: Verily we are in cold land and we are to do hard work therein. Wine gives us strength in our work and in the chill of our cities. The Prophet said: Does it intoxicate? The person said: Yes. Then the Prophet said: Give it up.

The jurists, however, hold that the use of wine can be permitted in the light of verse 3 of chapter 5 of the Holy Qur’an (which makes Haram as Halal under certain compulsions) when there is instant danger of death to the life of a sick man without it.

Wine is the mother of many evils (Umul Khabaith). It is one of the major sins to drink it. According to a tradition of the Prophet of Islam, a person is not a believer at the time of drinking wine. Paradise has been prohibited for a habitual drinker. God accepts repentance of drinker only for three times and when he takes wine for the fourth time after repentance, neither his prayer is accepted nor his repentance is accepted.

Following Verses of Al-Qur’an and Traditions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) ban drinking of wine and taking of intoxicants in all their forms, and also strongly condemn this evil:

Verses of the Holy Qur’an:

1.   They question thee about strong drink, and games of chance. Say: In both is great sin, and (some) utility for men; but the sin of them is greater than their usefulness.   ––2: 219

2.   O ye who believe! Draw not near unto prayer when ye are drunken, till ye know that which ye utter.   ––4: 43

3.   O ye who believe! Strong drink and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan’s handiwork. Leave it aside in order that ye may succeed. Satan seeketh only to cast among you enmity and hatred by means of strong drink and games of chance, and to turn you from remembrance of Allah and from (His) worship. Will ye then have done?   ––5: 90-91

Traditions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):

1.    Abdullah-b-Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah prohibited intoxicants, games of chance., card-playing and Gobairah and he said: Every intoxicant is unlawful.   (Abu Daud)

2.   Ibn Omar reported that the Messenger of Allah said: There are three for whom Paradise has been prohibited – a habitual drunkard, one disobedient to parents, and a careless husband who establishes impurity in his family.   (Ahmad, Nisai)

3.   Jaber reported that the Messenger of Allah said: What intoxicates in greater quantity is unlawful also in its small quantity.   (Ibn Majah, Tirmizi, Abu Daud)

4.   Dailamah al-Humairi reported: I asked: O Messenger of Allah, verily we are in cold land, and we are to do hard works therein, and we prepare wine from this wheat which gives us strength in our works and in the chill of our cities. He said: Does it intoxicate? ‘Yes’ said I. He said: Give it up. I said: Verily the people can not give it up. He said: If they do not give it up, fight with them.   (Abu Daud)

5.   Anas reported that the Prophet cursed ten about wine: one who squeezes it, one who is engaged for squeezing it, one who drinks it, one who carries it, one to whom it is carried, one who gives it to drink, one who sells it, one who devours its price, one who purchases it and one from whom it is purchased.   (Tirmizi, Ibn Majah)

6.   Wa’il al-Hadrami said that Tariq b. Suwaid asked the Prophet about wine and he forbade him. When he told him that he made it only as a medicine he replied, “It is not a medicine, but is a disease”.   (Muslim)

7.   Narrated Abu Hurairah: The Prophet (PBUH) said, “An adulterer, at the time he is committing illegal sexual intercourse is not a believer; and a person at the time of drinking an alcoholic drink is not a believer; and a thief at the time of stealing is not a believer”.   (Bukhari)

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