The concept of God has remained a riddle, a mystery, which has racked many human minds since time immemorial. Many great philosophers and prominent thinkers have pondered over the issue through ages but have failed to solve the mystery. Who is God? How defined? What is His nature and personality? Where is He? How is He? Does He exist? Who created the world? Who created us? These are some of the many questions which are raised by inquisitive minds, but the same have remained unanswered.

Al-Qur’an, the sacred book of Islam is the final revealed message of God to mankind through God’s last messenger Muhammad (Peace be upon him). It does not indulge in any metaphysical or theological arguments to prove existence of God. The Qur’an invites our attention to the world around us and urges us to meditate on the creation of the universe, the heavens and the earth, the sun and the moon, the galaxies of stars, the days and night, the oceans and rivers, the gardens and plants, the mountains and hills, the animals and birds, and even on creation of ourselves to recognize the existence of God. The Qur’an explains and elaborates the concept of God in a very vivid and clear way which even layman can comprehend by just glancing through its verses. God, according to the Qur’an, is Allah Who is the Almighty, All-Powerful, All-Knowing and Omnipotent Lord of the whole universe. There is no God save Him. He has no partner in His Sovereignty and Dominion and is One alone to be worshipped. He has no parents as He was not begotten; He has no children as He begets not. He is the Alive, the Eternal, neither sleep nor slumber overtakes Him. He is Creator Owner and Sustainer of every thing in the heavens and the earth. He gives life and death. Everything is in His knowledge and He knows the seen and unseen in the cosmos. Not a leaf falls without His leave and without His knowledge. Thus the Qur’anic concept of God is that of a Universal, Living, Omnipotent, Omnipresent and Omniscient God and it widely differs from the concepts of God preached and propagated by philosophers and other religions and their holy scriptures who either do not believe in any God or believe in many deities or in a local or a national God.

The Qur’an is a book about God and God’s relations with man, God being Master and man being His slave and viceroy or caliph. God is mentioned in the Qur’an for more than three thousand times either by His personal name ‘Allah’ or by His attributes. So it is not possible to refer to each verse while discussing the concept of God in the Qur’an. However, we can briefly state as under what the Qur’an teaches about few basic aspects of the concept of God.

Who is God?

God cannot be defined because God cannot be limited or confined within any particular framework. We have to perceive things in order to create an image of a thing or make definition of a particular thing. But God’s nature and His existence are not limited to what is familiar to us. It is, therefore, more proper to say that the entity and nature of God are questions that relate to what lies beyond the reach of human perception. Human mind has a finite scope, but God is infinite. How can finite reach infinity? Therefore, our minds cannot truly perceive God’s nature and entity. God cannot be described in human language but we can understand Him only through His attributes and His creations.

Al-Qur’an, the revealed book of Islam, presents in its verses a very vivid and beautiful description of Who is God. God, according to the Qur’an, is Allah Who is the Almighty, All-Powerful, All-Knowing and Omnipresent Lord of the whole universe. He is the Beneficent, the Merciful, the Forgiving God. There is no God save Him. He has no partner, no son, no children, no parents and no consorts. He is the Alive, the Eternal, neither sleep nor slumber overtake Him. He is the creator of the universe, the heavens and the earth and everything in the heavens and the earth, and of stars, sun, moon, satellites, day and night, animals, plants, matter, oceans, winds, rivers, fire, mountains, human beings, indeed of all seen or unseen things. Whatsoever is in the heavens and in the earth belongs to Him. He gives life and death and He is the Master of the Day of Judgment. He raised the heavens without visible support and spread out the earth placing therein hills, flowing streams and fruits. He has created everything out of water and in pairs, in different kinds and colours. Thus speaks the Qur’an as to who is God?

·        All Praise is only for Allah, the Lord of the universe. The Most Beneficent, the most Merciful. Master of the Day of Judgement. O Lord! You alone we worship and You alone we call for help.   (1:1-4)

·        Allah is He Who raised the heavens without pillars that you can see, then He mounted the Throne, and subjected the sun and the moon, each one is running in its course for an appointed term. He regulates all affairs.   (13:2)

·        And it is He Who has spread out the earth and placed therein firm hills and the rivers; and of all fruits He made therein two spouses (male and female), and He made the night cover the day.   (13:3)

·        It is He Who created for you ears and eyes and hearts, yet you give little thanks (to Him). And it is He Who has created you in the earth and to Him you shall all be gathered. And it is He Who gives life and causes death and in His control is the alternation of the night and day.   (23:78-80)

·        He it is Who created you from dust, then from a drop of semen, then from a clot, then He brings you as a child, then He makes you attain strength, and afterwards you become old, though some of you die earlier.   (40:67)

The Qur’an in its verse 258 of its Chapter 2 tells us how Prophet Abraham tried to explain the concept of God to king of Iraq when the latter had an argument with him. Abraham said: My Lord is He Who gives life and causes death. At this the King said: I give life and cause death. So Abraham said: Allah causes the sun to rise from the East, so you cause it to come up from the West. The king at this was confounded and could not reply. Verses 23-28 of Surah 26 tell us how Prophet Moses explained to Pharaoh of Egypt as to who is the Lord of the worlds: “Pharaoh said: And what is the Lord of the worlds? Moses said: Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, if you had but sure belief ……. Your Lord and Lord of your forefathers……. Lord of the East and the West and all that is between them, if you did but understand.” When Prophet Muhammad was asked about the ancestry of God, he said: “Say, He is Allah, the One! Allah is Eternal and Independent of all, while all are dependent on Him. He begets not, nor was He begotten. And there is none equal or comparable to Him.”   (Al-Qur’an 112:1-4)

Evidence of His existence

Since times immemorial, the philosophers and the learned have been trying in vain to prove or disprove the existence of God. The existence of God, however, cannot be proved through scientific arguments as science is in a continuous process of development. It proves today what it used to deny yesterday, and it may reject tomorrow what it accepts today. Hence scientific arguments are uncertain and they cannot be taken as final in matters which relate to God.

When a traveller passes through a forest and sees a cottage he immediately thinks presence of a human being who has constructed the cottage and is living therein. When a caravan passes through a desert and sees footprints of a man, its members are immediately convinced of a traveller who passed from there instead of conjecturing that the footprints have grown out themselves. If you look at a beautiful building you instantly think of the architect who made the plan of that building and of the engineers, masons and labourers who constructed it. Not even for a moment you think that the building has come into existence of its own. But how strange that we should not get convinced about the Creator when we look at the heavens, the stars, the sun and the moon, and also see the oceans, mountains, animals, plants and gardens around us. Have these things created themselves or have they been created by some great creator? Certainly they have been created by the Lord of all beings as they cannot create themselves. If a human being who is intelligent of all these things cannot create himself how come the earth, the mountains, the skies, the animals, the hills, and the plants can create themselves! If the existence of a cottage in a forest can convince of the presence of a human being, the footprints can convince of a traveler having passed through desert and the existence of a building can convince of its architect, then why the existence of universe, heavens and earth, sun and moon, and above all of ourselves should not convince us of the presence of an All-Powerful Omnipresent Creator.

The Holy Qur’an proves the existence of the Almighty God from God’s creation, His Attributes and His signs, and the portents and the indicators in the universes and in the nature which are scattered around us. The Qur’an draws our attention to the world around us and invites us to meditate on the creation of the universe, the heavens and the earth, the sun and the moon, the galaxies of stars, the oceans and the rivers, the mountains and the hills, the animals and the trees, and even on the creation of ourselves to recognize the existence of God Who is the Creator, the Sustainer and the Lord of all. According to the Qur’an, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, in the difference of the day and the night, in the floating of the ships upon the sea, in the flying of the birds in the air, in the revival of the earth with rain water, in the life and death, in the growth of plants and fruit-trees, in the dispersing of all kinds of animals on earth, in the winds and clouds, in the running of stars and planets in their orbits, in the organization and order in the nature and all natural phenomenon, in the diversity of the plants and vegetation although served with one water, in the difference of languages and colours of human beings though all have common parents Adam and Eve, there are signs of God for those who reflect. God says in the Qur’an: “Soon shall We show them our signs in the universe and in their own selves until it will become clear to them that this is the truth. Does your Lord not suffice as He verily is witness over all things?” (41:53). At another place in the Qur’an it has been said: “And in the earth there are signs for those who have firm belief. And also in your selves. Do you not then see?”   (51:20-21).

Please also refer to al-Qur’an 2:28-29; 2:164; 3:190; 30:20-35; 36:33-42;

His Description

We have already discussed that God is infinite whereas our minds are finite. Therefore, we cannot comprehend the nature and entity of God. All we know about Him is through His signs which are scattered in the whole of universe around us and through the Prophets and the revealed books.

According to the Qur’an, Allah is the light of the heavens and the earth and the human vision comprehends Him not. Naught is as His likeness and there is none comparable unto Him. The Qur’an says:

·        Allah, there is no God but He, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him. Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth belongs to Him. Who is he that can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows that which is in front of them and which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge except as He wills. His throne extends over heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding them. He is the Most High, the Supreme.   (2:255)

·        No vision can comprehend Him while He comprehends all vision. He is the Subtile, the Aware.   (6:103). 

·        Allah is the light of the heavens and the earth. The similitude of His light is as a niche wherein is a lamp. The lamp is in a crystal. The crystal is as it were a shining star, it (the lamp) is lit (with the oil) from the blessed tree, an olive neither of the East nor of the West, whose oil would almost glow of itself though no fire touched it. Light upon light....... (24:35).

·        The Creator of the heavens and the earth. He has made for you spouses from yourselves, and has also made for the cattle pairs, whereby He multiplies you. There is nothing like unto Him; and He is the Hearer, the Seer.   (42:11).

·        Say: He is Allah the One! Allah is Eternal and Independent of all, while all are dependent on Him. He begets not, nor was He begotten. And there is none equal (or comparable) to Him.   (112:1-4)

Where is He?

God is Omni-present. He is everywhere. To Allah belong the East and the West, whithersoever you turn, there is the Presence of Allah. God is with you wheresoever you may be. God is near to everyone of us, even nearer to one than one’s jugular vein. There is no secret conference where Allah is not present and on the Day of Judgment He would inform everyone what he used to do. According to the Qur’an, God established Himself upon the throne directing all things after creating the heavens and the earth in six days. But this should not lead one to understand that God is seated on or confined to only a particular place in the universe, because this would be a misconception. God is everywhere and His throne, in fact, includes the heavens and the earth.

Following Verses of the Holy Scripture of Islam, the Qur’an, persuade us to comprehend the Islamic notion of omnipresence of All-Seeing and All-Knowing God Who is the Lord of the Cosmos.

·        To Allah belong the East and the West; so in which ever direction you turn, there is Allah’s face. Lo! Allah is All. Embracing, All-Knowing.   (2:115)

·        And when My slaves ask you (O Muhammad) concerning me, (then tell them) I am, indeed, near them. I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me.   (2:186).

·        We indeed created man and We know what his soul whispers to him, and We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.   (50:16)

·        He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days, then He mounted the Throne. He knows what enters the earth and what comes forth from it, and what descends from the sky and what ascends to it. And He is with you wherever you are. And Allah is seer of what you do.   (57:4)

·        Have you not seen that Allah knows what is in the heavens and what is in the earth? There is no secret conference of three but He is their fourth, nor of five but He is their sixth, nor of less than that or of more but He is with them wheresoever, they may be; and then on the Day of Resurrection He will inform them of that which they used to do.    (58:7)

God’s Names and Attributes

The proper name of Almighty God is Allah Who has other ninety nine attributive names which all have been mentioned in the Qur’an, the revealed book of Islam. About the word “Allah,” there is much difference of opinion as to what is its origin and as to which language does it belong. Those who take it an Arabic word say the word Allah consists of two words: “Al” and “llah”. The first one is the definite article, which means “the” while the second one means “the being who is worshipped”. When these two words were joined the letter “i” at the beginning of the second word was dropped for easier pronunciation and thereby the two words became inseparable merging into one word “Allah”. Thus “Allah” means “The God”, i.e., “the supreme being who is worshipped by all creatures and to whom all turn and pray for fulfillment of their needs.”

The Ninety-Nine Attributive Names of Allah denote Attributes of the Almighty. For example, God’s Name Ar-Rahman means the most compassionate as in showing mercy God does not distinguish between pious and sinners. Al-Khaliq is another name of God which denotes the attribute of creation which basically belongs to God. Ar-Raziq means the ‘Provider’ and it denotes Allah’s attribute of providing sustenance to all His creatures. Thus each name of the Almighty highlights each or sometimes more of His attributes. Although memorizing all these names of God is not discouraged but the greatest merit lies in that if the attributes contained in these names are adopted instead of repeating the names on a rosary like a parrot. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is reported to have said: “lmbue thyself with divine attributes”. God is Ar-Rahim (the most Merciful), so a human being should also show mercy to his fellow beings. Similarly God is Ghafoor (the most forgiving) so a believer should also follow this divine attribute and forgive the faults of his fellows.

One of the Names of God is the greatest (called Ism-e-Azim) but nobody knows which it is and where to find it. There exists a great difference of opinion among the jurists and scholars about the greatest name of Allah. According to a tradition of the Prophet of Islam, the greatest name of Allah is in these two verses: verse no. 163 of the Qur’an’s chapter 2 and verse no 2 of its chapter 3.

Hafiz Ibn-e-Hajr Asqalani, great Muslim scholar and commentator of the Holy Qur’an, in his book Fathul-Bari, has statedly drawn up a list of the verses wherein all the names of Allah are found. Generally following verses are identified to contain the 99 Attributive names of God.

1 (1-3); 2(115, 126, 128, 158, 163, 255, 263); 3(2, 8, 62); 4(1, 43, 45, 85, 86); 6(14, 18, 65, 74, 102, 104, 115); 11(57, 61, 73); 12(21, 39, 64); 13(9, 23); 16(70, 91); 17(44, 65, 110); 18(110); 19(47); 20(14, 82); 21(112); 22(17); 24(20, 25, 35); 25(30, 31); 27(9, 40); 28(58); 30(52); 32(22); 34(26); 36(81); 38(65); 39(36); 40(3, 15, 20, 22); 42(19, 28); 51(58); 52(28); 54(55); 57(3); 59(22, 24); 85(14); 87(1); 96(3); 112(1-2);

Following are 99 Attributive Names of the Almighty:

(1)                   AR-RAHMAN

                        The Beneficent            

(2)                   AR-RAHIM

                        The Merciful

(3)                   AL-MALIK

                        The Sovereign Lord

(4)                   AL-QUDDUS

                        The Holy

(5)                   AS-SALAM

                        The Source of Peace

(6)                   AL-MUMIN

                        The Guardian of Faith

(7)                   Al-muhaymin

                        The Protector

(8)                   AL-‘AZIZ

                        The Mighty

(9)                   AL-JABBAR

                        The Compeller


                        The Majestic

(11)      AL-KHALIQ

                        The Creator

(12)      AL-BARI

                        The Evolver

(13)      AL-MUSAWWIR

                        The Fashioner

(14)      AL-GHAFFAR

                        The Forgiver

(15)      Al-QAHHAR

                        The Subduer

(16)      AL-WAHHAB

                        The Bestower

(17)      AR-RAZZAQ

                        The Porvider

(18)      AL-FATTAH

                        The Opener

(19)      AL-‘ALIM

                        The All-knowing

(20)      AL-QABID

                        The Constrictor

(21)      AL-BASIT

                        The Expander

(22)      AL-KHAFID

                        The Abaser

(23)      AR-RAFI’

                        The Exalter

(24)      AL-MU’IZZ

                        The Honorer

(25)      AL-MUZILL

                        The Dishonorer

(26)      AS-SAMI

                        The All-Hearing

(27)      AL-BASIR

                        The All-seeing

(28)      AL-HAKAM

                        The Judge

(29)      AL-‘ADL

                        The Just

(30)      AL-LATIF

                        The Subtle One

(31)      AL-KHABIR

                        The Aware

(31)      AL-HALIM

                        The Forbearing One

(33)      AL-‘AZIM

                        The Great One

(34)      AL-GHAFUR

                        The All-Forgiving

(35)      ASH-SHAKUR

                        The Appreciative

(36)      AL-‘ALI

                        The Most High

(37)      AL-KABIR

                        The Most Great

(38)      AL-HAFIZ

                        The Preserver

(38)      AL-MUQIT

                        The Maintainer

(40)      AL-HASIB

                        The Reckoner

(41)      AL-JALIL

                        The Sublime One

(42)      AL-KARIM

                        The Generous One

(43)      AR-RAIB

                        The Watchful

(44)      AL-MUJIB

                        The Responsive

(45)      AL-WASI’

                        The All-Embracing

(46)      AL-HAKIM

                        The Wise

(47)      AL-WADUD

                        The Loving

(48)      AL-MAJID

                        The Most Glorious One             

(49)      AL-BA’ITH

                        The Resurrector

(50)      ASH-SHAHID

                        The Witness

(51)      AL-HAQQ

                        The Truth

(52)      AL-WAKIL

                        The Trustee

(53)      AL-QAWI

                        The Most Strong

(54)      AL-MATIN

                        The Firm One

(55)      AL-WALI

                        The Protecting Friend

(56)      AL-HAMID

                        The Praiseworthy

(57)      AL-MUHSI

                        The Reckoner

(58)      AL-MUBDI

                        The Originator

(59)      AL-MU’ID

                        The Restorer

(60)      AL-MUHYI

                        The Giver of Life

(61)      AL-MUMIT

                        The Creator of Death

(62)      AL-HAYY

                        The Alive

(63)      AL-QAYYUM

                        The Self-Subsisting

(64)      AL-WAJID

                        The Finder

(65)      AL-MAJID

                        The Noble

(66)      AL-WAHID

                        The Unique

(67)      AL-AHAD

                        The One

(68)      AS-SAMAD

                        The Eternal

(69)      AL-QADIR

                        The Able

(70)      AL-MUQTADIR

                        The Powerful

(71)      AL-MUQADDIM

                        The Expediter

(72)      AL-MU’AKHKHIR

                        The Delayer

(73)      AL-AWWAL

                        The First

(74)      AL-AKHIR

                        The Last

(75)      AZ-ZAHIR

                        The Manifest

(76)      AL-BATIN

                        The Hidden

(77)      AL-WALI

                        The Governor

(78)      AL-MUTA’ALI

                        The Most Exalted

(79)      AL-BARR

                        The Source of All Goodness

(80)      AT-TAWWAB

                        The Acceptor of Repentance

(81)      AL-MUNTAQIM

                        The Avenger

(82)      AL-‘AFUW

                        The Pardoner

(83)      AR-RA’UF

                        The Compassionate

(84)      MALIK-UL-MULK

                        The Eternal Owner of Sovereignty


                        The Lord of Majesty and Bounty

(86)      AL-MUQSIT

                        The Equitable

(87)      AL-JAME

                        The Gatherer

(88)      AL-GHANI

                        The Self-Sufficient

(89)      AL-MUGHNI

                        The Enricher

(90)      AL-MANI

                        The Preventer

(91)      AD-DARR

                        The Distresser

(92)      AN-NAFI

                        The Propitious

(93)      AN-NUR

                        The Light

(94)      AL-HADI

                        The Guide

(95)      AL-BADI

                        The Incomparable

(96)      AL-BAQI

                        The Everlasting

(97)      AL-WARITH

                        The Supreme Inheritor

(98)      AR-RASHID

                        The Guide to the Right Path

(99)      AS-SABUR

                        The Patient


God is only One and He is Allah

God is one. There is no God save Him. Islam is strictly a monotheistic faith and is committed to hold that Allah is the only God of the whole of the universe and there is no God in any form or manifestation except Allah. Unity of Godhead is the fundamental teaching of the religion of Islam. The belief in the Oneness of God is the most important of the five major and fundamental articles of faith for a follower of Islam. None can embrace Islam and enter into the brotherhood of the Muslims until and unless he declares by tongue and also truly believes in his heart that there is no God but Allah.

It is rightly said that al-Qur’an, the revealed book of Islam, teaches directly or indirectly in almost every other verse the fundamental principle of Oneness of God and condemns those who hold or worship more than One God or who associate partners unto Allah. According to the Qur’an, the messiah, Jesus son of Mary, was only a messenger of Allah and His word which He conveyed unto Mary, and a spirit from Him. Jesus was neither son of Allah nor he was God. Thus the Qur’an rejects Christian doctrine of Trinity or three Gods (God the Father, God the Son and the Holy Ghost) in unambiguous terms. The Qur’an also dismisses the doctrine of two-Gods held by the Zoroastrians and idea of many gods held by polytheists like Hindus.

The Qur’an tells us in detail how the Prophets of God, right from Adam to Muhammad (May Allah’s peace by upon them), have been teaching the Oneness of God and how they have been enjoining their followers to believe in and worship only One God. Thus spoke Jesus, son of Mary, from the cradle: “Lo! I am the slave of Allah. He hath given me the scripture and hath appointed me a Prophet; And hath made me blessed wherever I may be, and hath enjoined upon me prayer and alms-giving so long as I remain alive, And (hath made me) dutiful towards her who bore me, and hath not made me arrogant, unblest,”   (Al-Qur’an 19:30-32).

In the following verses, al-Qur’an promotes on the one hand the uncompromising principle of the absolute Oneness of God as taught by all the Prophets of God and on the other hand it rejects the belief held by some religions and philosophies that there is no god or there are many gods in the universe.

·        Your God is One God; there is no God save Him, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.   (2:163)

·        Allah! There is no God but He, the Alive, the Eternal.   (3:2)

·        He it is Who shapes you in the wombs as He pleases. There is no God but He, the Almighty, the Wise.   (3:6)

·        Allah (Himself) bears witness that there is no God but He. And (so do) the angels and the men of knowledge who stand firm on justice.   (3:18)

·        O People of the Scripture (Christians)! Do not exceed the limits in your religion nor speak of Allah anything but the Truth. The Christ, Jesus son of Mary; was only a messenger of Allah and His word which He bestowed on Mary, and a spirit from Him. So believe in Allah and His messengers, and say not: Three. Stop saying this, it is better for you. Allah is only One God. Glory be to Him as He is far from above having a son.   (4:171)

·        They are surely disbelievers who say: Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary, whereas the Messiah himself had said: O children of Israel! Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord. Verily, he who ascribes partners to Allah, for him Allah has forbidden Paradise.   (5:72)

·        And indeed We sent Noah to his people and he said: O my people! Worship Allah, you have no God save Him.   (7:59)

·        Also refer to al-Quran 3:62; 5:17; 5:73-75; 5:110-118; 12:39-40; 16:51; 17:42;

God has no partner

In a preceding section, we have already discussed at length the concept of Oneness of God. The basic teaching of Islam is, as is that of previous revealed religions, that there is no God but Allah and only He should be worshipped. God has no partners, no associates. Al-Qur’an, the revealed book of Islam, condemns those, in the severest possible terms, who hold associates of God and attribute partners unto Him. Ascribing partners unto Allah is the greatest sin which would not be pardoned although God forgives every other sin whom He will. In the words of Jesus Christ, whoso ascribes partners unto God, for him God has forbidden Paradise. According to the Qur’an, neither idols, nor Jinn, nor any human being, nor rabbis, nor monks, nor priests, nor Jesus Christ are god or partners of God.

The following verses of the Qur’an bring home this fact that there is no partner or associate of God:

·        Do they associate as partners with Him who created nothing but are themselves created?   (7:191)

·        Verily, those on who you call beside Allah are (in fact) slaves like you. So call on them (as a test) and let them answer you, if you are truthful.   (7:194)

·        Say (O Muhammad): If there were other gods alongwith Him, as they (the polytheists) say, then they would have certainly sought a way (to rebel) against the Lord of the Throne (Allah).   (17:42)

·        If there were other gods therein beside Allah, then verily both (the heavens and the earth) had been in great disorder.   (21:22)

·        O mankind! A similitude is coined, so listen to it attentively. Verily, those on whom you call beside Allah, can never create a fly though they combine together for it. And if a fly snatches away something from them, they cannot even get it back from her. How weak are (both) the seeker and the sought.   (22:73)

·        Allah has not taken any son, nor is there any god along with Him. Had it been so, then each god would have taken away what he had created, and some of them would have tried to overcome others. Glorified be Allah above all that they attribute to Him.   (23:91)

God neither begets nor was begotten  

God, the Almighty Lord of the cosmos has neither parents, nor any consort or spouse, nor any son, nor any daughter. In other words, He was not begotten nor He begets. The Qur’an condemns those, in very harsh words, who ascribe sons and daughters to the Almighty. The Qur’an has turned down straight away not only the suggestion of the pagan Arabs that God has daughters but has also rejected the claim of the Jews that Ezra is the son of Allah and the claim of the Christians that Jesus is the son of God. The revealed book of Islam gives a detailed account how Mary, the mother of Jesus, conceived, how she withdrew from the people to a far place and how the baby Jesus spoke to the Jews to reject their false allegations against the chastity of his mother.

The Qur’an has likened Jesus to Adam. Adam was born without father and mother whereas Jesus was born without father. If Almighty Allah created Adam without both parents why He could not create Jesus without father? When Almighty intends to do a thing, He says: Be, and it is! So the birth of Jesus without a biological father should neither cause Jewish allegations of unchastity against Mary nor it should lend support to Christian claim that Jesus was son of God. Both these utterances are blasphemous.

In the following verses the Holy Qur’an elaborates its view point on the absolute unity of God and turns down the allegations of those who attribute sons and daughters unto Him:

·        Yet they make the Jinn as partners with Him, though He has created them, and they ascribe to Him sons and daughters without knowledge. All glory be to Him. He is highly exalted and far above that they ascribe to Him. The originator of the heavens and the earth. How can He have a child when He has no consort? He creates everything and He is the Knower of everything.   (6:100-101)

·        The Jews say: “Ezra is the son of Allah.” And the Christian say: “Messiah is the son of Allah.” That is their saying with their mouths. They imitate the saying of the disbelievers of old times. May Allah destroy them. How are they deluded away from the Truth?   (9:30)

·        And they say: The Beneficent has taken unto Himself a son. (Say): Indeed you utter a disastrous thing, whereby almost heavens are torn, and the earth is split asunder, and the mountains crumble to pieces, that you ascribe to the Beneficent a son, when it is not befitting for the Beneficent that He should take a son.   (19:88-93).

·        Say: He is Allah the One! Allah is Eternal and Independent of all, while all are dependent on Him. He begets not, nor was He begotten. And there is none equal (or comparable) to Him.   (112:1-4)

No mortal can see God

            No mortal human being–neither ordinary one nor even the blessed one like a prophet–can see God, since human vision cannot comprehend Him. Eye-sight cannot see God as eye-sight is limited while God is unlimited. The object of sight is something in space and form but God is above such things. The Qur’an tells us that when God spoke to Prophet Moses on Mount Sinai, Moses expressed his desire to see the Almighty, but he could not. When God revealed His Glory to the mountain crashing it down, Moses fell down in a swoon. The followers of Moses also insisted that Moses should show them God, but lightening seized them and they fell lifeless. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) saw Angel Gabriel twice or thrice in his lifetime but he never saw God, neither during his ascension (Mairaj) to heaven nor on any other occasion. Although some of the Prophet’s companions claim that Prophet had seen God, but many of them and his wife Hadrat Aishah report that Muhammad (PBUH) never saw God. When Prophet himself was asked this question, he replied: God is light, how can I see Him?

            According to the Qur’an, vision of God for a human being in this world is not possible, but in the next world God would reveal Himself before all the human beings on the Day of Judgment. The believers who enter paradise would have vision of Allah more often. Kindly refer to verses No 2(55-56); 6(103); 7(143); 42(51).

God’s Signs

            God is invisible. None has seen Him. He is recognized by the signs which one sees around him in the universe, in the nature, in the creation of various things, in the functioning of different natural actors, and above all in himself. The Holy Book of Islam particularly presents the following as signs of God to those who have understanding: creation of the heavens and the earth; all that has been created in the heavens and the earth; placing of hills and flowing streams in the earth; difference of night and day; the rainwater which revives the dead earth and causes production of fruits, corn, gardens, plants, as food for humans and animals; winds and clouds; the ships which run upon the sea; creation of fruits, plants, animals and humans in pairs; creation of the sun, the moon and the stars; how the shadows of the things created by God incline to the right and the left making prostration to Him; rain, lightening, thunder, hail; creation of human being out of dust; difference of languages and colours; night made for rest and sleep, day for work and seeking of God’s bounty; creation of beasts and animals; quickening of dead; etc, etc.

            Following Verses of the Holy Qur’an point out some of the signs of God and invite the people to meditate and reflect: 2:164; 3:190; 10:6; 13:3-4; 30:20-25; 32:26-27; 36:33-42; 41:37-39; 42:29-33; 45:3-6;

He has knowledge of every thing

            God has knowledge of everything, of whatsoever is in the heavens and in the earth. He knows what you hide in your breasts or reveal it. He knows that which is in the heavens and that which is in the earth. He knows what is in front of you and that which is behind you, while you encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. God knows your secrets and your utterances and He knows what you earn. It is only God who knows what is in the land and in the sea. Not a leaf falls but He knows it, not a grain amid the darkness of the night, naught of wet or dry but it is noted in a clear record. God is the Knower of the invisible and the visible and He knows which every female bears. Only He knows the secrets of the heavens and the earth and with Him are the keys of the invisible. According to the Qur’an, only God has the knowledge of the unseen. None of His creatures, no mortal nor even any messenger has knowledge of the unseen until and unless God gives him some of such knowledge. Only He knows when the Doomsday would come, He knows which is in the wombs. No soul knows what it will earn and in what land it will die. He knows which goes down into the earth and that which comes forth from it, and that which descends from the heaven and that which ascends into it. No female bears or brings forth, save with His knowledge. No secret conference of three takes place but He is their fourth, nor of five but He is their sixth, nor of less than that or more but he is with them. In short, God’s knowledge of the seen and unseen, of visible and invisible, of past, present and future, of hidden and known, of everything in the earth or in the heavens, is perfect, total and absolute. Out of His grace, he makes part of His knowledge available to His servants.

            The Qur’an says: “Verily, nothing in the earth or in the heavens is hidden from Allah” (3:5). Again the Qur’an says: Say (O Muhammad). Whether you hide that which is in your breasts or disclose it, Allah knows it. And He knows what is in the heavens and what is in the earth.   (3:29)

            Please also refer to verses 6(3); 6(59); 10(61); 13(16); 25(6); 31(16); 31(34); 34(2); 35(11); 35(38); 41(47); 72(26-27); 


He is the Creator of every thing

God is the best and the greatest creator. He is the only One Who is the Originator and the creator of the Universe, the heavens and the earth, and of everything which is visible or invisible to human eye and which is known or unknown to man. He created sun, stars, moon, planets, satellites and every other thing in the heavens and the earth. Night and day, light and darkness, air and wind, storms and clouds, rain and water, oceans and rivers, mountains and hills, flowing streams and gushing springs, glaciers and icebergs, life and death are all His creations. Plants, gardens fruits, vegetables, corn, crops, vineyards, date-palms, forests, trees, are all His handiwork. He created Angels of light, Jinn of the fire and man of potter’s clay of black mud altered. Animals, cattle, horses, beasts, birds, fish, milk, honey, fire, are all His creatures. He created all things in pairs and created life out of water.

The Quran says: “He is the originator of the heavens and the earth. When He decrees a thing, He says to it only: Be! And it is” (2:117). Again it says: O mankind! Fear your Lord Who created you from a single soul and from it created its mate and from them He scattered (like seed) countless men and women (4:1). The Qur’an also says: “Allah is the creator of all things, and He is guardian over every thing.”   (39:62)

Please also refer to verses 7:57; 13:2-4; 14:32; 15:26-27; 16:3-12; 21:30-33; 23:17-22; 24:45; 41:9-12; 51:47-49; 56:71-73; 67:2-5; 78:6-16;

He is the Sovereign-Lord

According to the Qur’an, God is the Sovereign Lord of the Universe and Absolute Ruler of the cosmos. He is the Creator of everything. He is the Sustainer, the Cherisher, and the Nourisher. He is the Regulator and the Perfector. He is the Supreme Law-Giver and the Supreme-Judge. He is the Supreme Lord and the Most Powerful. Sovereignty in all its dimensions over the heavens and the earth and everything else is for Allah only. Power of command and rule in the Universe and in the heavens and the earth belongs to God and God alone. The totality of power and authority in all aspects is prerogative of Allah and there is none who can share in this prerogative. He is able to do all things.

God is the source and fountain head of all power and honour. It is He Who bestows honour and power on man. So whosoever desires power and honour should know that all power and honour comes from God.

The Qur’an, in its following Verses, highlights the concept of God’s Sovereignty and command:

2(107); 3(26); 5(40); 9(116); 10(66); 23(116); 25(2); 28(70); 35(10); 42(49); 43(84-85); 59(23); 114(1-4);

God’s favours to man

The Qur’an tells us that God created man of the best stature and gave him eyes with which he sees, ears with which he hears, hearts (minds) with which he meditates and reflects, hands with which he does everything and feet with which he walks. Allah made serviceable to man sun, moon, stars, day and night, animals, plants, rivers, seas, and indeed whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth. He has bestowed many favours on man. He is the best Sustainer, Protector and Nourisher. He provides subsistence, food and means of living to man. He provides sustenance, straitens it and extends it. 

Allah made man caliph or viceroy and preferred him to many of His creations. He created Adam of potter’s clay and asked the angels to prostrate before him. All did except Satan who was declared outcast. Satan’s request for reprieve to misguide the man was, however, granted.

So Satan misleads the man from right path. He, first of all, misguided Adam and made him to eat from the forbidden tree and thus got him expelled from heaven. Since the Devil misleads Adam’s children to the path of evil and of Hell, God sent messengers and revealed books for the guidance of man. It is against this background that great Prophets like Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad (peace be upon them) were sent and books like Torah, Gospel and the Qur’an were revealed.

Please refer to verses 2:22; 2:28-29; 2:30-39; 6:46; 6:141; 6:165; 10:22; 14:32-33; 16:5-8; 16:10-15; 17:70; 22:65; 31:20; 55:14-16; 57:25;

God’s rights over man

Man is God’s best creation and God has made man viceroy in the earth, has set many of His creatures to serve man and has bestowed on man many favours, which we have mentioned above. So man owes more gratefulness to God than other creatures. Therefore, there are many obligations of man towards his creator. He should believe in Him and should worship Him alone. He should glorify God and hymn His praise. He should love God and remember Him always, sitting, walking, lying. He should fear God and be kind and merciful to others. He should pray to God alone and seek help only from Him. He should trust in God and seek His refuge from Satan the outcast. He should follow the prophets and lead his life in accordance with their teachings. It is only then that man would succeed and would justify his creation. He can then hope for reward when God resurrects the dead on the Day of Judgement. 

God is Forgiving, Merciful

God is Forgiving, Merciful. According to the Qur’an, God may forgive every sin other than that of polytheism. He may not forgive those who are disbelievers in Him and who associate partners unto Him. Whoso commits a sin and then seeks pardon of God sincerely, God shows his clemency and pardons him so much so if a person is forced by necessity and eats a forbidden (Haram) thing like swineflesh, God forgives him. Although God is strong in punishing yet He is rich in pardon for mankind despite their wrong doing. Were God to take mankind to task for their wrong doing, He would not have left on land any living creature. Those who repent, and believe and do good works, God may change their evil deeds to good deeds instead of pardoning them only. According to traditions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), when a sinner beseeches God, He forgives his sins even if they are as numerous as to reach the clouds of heaven or there are earthful of sins provided the sinner does not set up partners with God. So the believers have been advised by the Prophet to seek forgiveness of God at least hundred times a day. 

God gives life and death

It is God who gives life and causes death. No human being, no animal, no living creature can come into existence of its own, neither it can die before the time fixed by God nor it can avert or delay its death when the fixed time comes. God creates and gives life to every creature and He gives death to every living one. Besides God, you have no protecting friend nor helper and unto Him you will return after your death. God created you, then sustained you, then causes you to die, then He will give life to you again. This is the cycle of life which the Holy Qur’an highlights. Death is inevitable and is inavertable. Every soul will taste of death. The Holy Qur’an says:

·        How can you disbelieve in Allah when (the fact is that) you were dead, He gave you life; and then He will give you death, and restore you to life again, and then unto Him you shall return?   (2:28)

·        Allah is He Who created you, then He sustained you, then He causes you to die, then He gives you life again.   (30:40)

·        Please also refer to verses 3:156; 4:78; 9:116; 21:35; 45:26;

He would reward the pious and punish the wicked on the Day of Judgement

The Holy Qur’an tells us that after our death, God would raise us and give us life again. This would be our resurrection (of body and soul) which would happen on the Day of Resurrection, also called Day of Judgment or Doomsday. Every living soul would taste death and on the Day of Resurrection it would be revived to be paid recompense for its deeds done in this world. The non-believers, in every age, have been ridiculing the idea of resurrection raising silly questions before the prophets. Such questions were also raised before Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The idea of resurrection, when they would be dead and reduced to bones and dust, looks to such people very strange. The Qur’an tells them that Almighty God Who gave them life when they were nothing would revive them after their death as their resurrection is not more difficult for the Creator of the Heavens and the Earth than their first creation. When God intends to do a thing He only says unto it: Be! And it is.

On the Day of Judgement, all would be gathered. Book of deeds would be setup. Prophets and witnesses would be called. Allah would reward the good-doers and would punish the evil-doers. The former would be admitted into Paradise while the latter would be thrown into Hell.

Traditions (Ahadith) about God

There are hundreds of Traditions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) about God. However, for lack of space we reproduce only few of them below:  

1.      Ibn Umar reported that the Holy Prophet said: Islam is built on five things-to bear witness that there is no deity but Allah and Muhammad (PBUH) is His servant, to keep up prayer, to pay Zakat, to make pilgrimage and to keep fast in Ramzan.   (Bukhari, Muslim)

2.      Abu Hurairah reported that the Holy Prophet said: The Almighty said: “The son of Adam imputed falsehood to Me which was not proper for him, and backbited Me which was not proper for him. As for his imputation of falsehood to Me, it is only because of his saying that He can never bring me back to life as He created me first’ while the first creation was not easier to Me than to bring him back to life. As for his backbiting Me, it is because of his saying that Allah adopted a son while I am One praised, free from wants. I did not beget, nor was I begotten and there is none equal to Me.

3.      Abu Musa reported God’s Messenger as saying: “No one is more patient over injury which he hears than God. Men attribute a son to Him, yet He preserves them and provides for them.”   (Bukhari, Muslim)

4.      Mu’adh said: I was riding behind the Prophet on an ass with nothing between him and me but the rear part of the saddle, when he said: “Do you know, Mu’adh! What God has a right to expect from His servants, and what His servants have a right to expect from God?” I replied: God and His Messenger know best. He said: “What God has a right to expect from His servants is that they should worship Him, not associating anything with Him; and what the servants have a right to expect from God is that He should not punish one who does not associate anything with Him.” I said: Messenger of God! Shall I not give this good news to the people? He replied: “Do not tell them, and have them trusting in it alone.”   (Bukhari, Muslim)

5.      Obadah-b-Swamet reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Whoso bears witness that there is no deity but Allah, He is one, there is no partner for Him, and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger and that Jesus (P.H.) is servant of Allah and His Messenger and son of His maid and His Word which He breathed unto Mary, and a Spirit from Him, and that Paradise and Hell are true – Allah will admit him in Paradise inspite of the deeds he might have done.   (Bukhari, Muslim)

6.      Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: People shall not cease to enquire till it will be asked: Allah made creation, but who had created Allah? So when they will utter that, say – Allah is one, Allah is free from want; He neither begets nor was He begotten; and there is none like Him. Let him afterwards turn to his left side thrice and seek refuge to Allah from the accursed devil.   (Abu Daud)

7.      Abdullah-bin-Omar reported: We were with the Prophet in one of his holy wars. He passed by a people. He said: Who is this people? They replied: We are Muslims. A woman was kindling a fire under her pot and her son was with her. When the fleck of fire rose high, she took it to a side. Then the Apostle of Allah came (there) and she asked: Are you the Apostle of Allah? ‘Yes’, said he. She said: My father and mother be sacrificed to thee, is not Allah the most Merciful among the merciful? ‘Yes” he replied. She asked: Is not Allah more affectionate to His servants than a mother for her child? ‘Yes’ said he. She said: A mother does not certainly cast her child into fire. Then the Apostle of Allah burst into tears. Afterwards he raised his head towards her and said. Allah will not punish His servants for their sins except one who is disobedient, rebellious, raising rebellion against Allah and refusing to say – ‘There is no God but Allah.’   (Ibn Majah)


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