The Qur’an does not deal with the subject of decline and fall of nations from the point of view of a historian. Rather it approaches this subject from the point of view of a teacher of eithics and religion. Therefore it does not discuss the political and economic reasons of downfall of the nations and civilizations of old; instead it discusses moral and religious reasons of their downfall. It tells us that God sent Prophets and warners to every nation who invited the people to believe in God and follow them. They also asked the people to worship God alone without attributing partners to Him and to do good deeds and shun evil and sinful acts. But the people did not listen to them. Instead of accepting their invitation to truth, they rejected revelations of Allah and ridiculed the Prophets. So after giving final warning to the people about the evil consequences of their rejection of God’s message, God sent His torment and destroyed them completely. Here are some of the verses of the Qur’an which tell us reasons of downfall of old nations and the consequences of their misconduct.

·        See they not how many a generation We destroyed before them, whom We had established in the earth more firmly than We have established you, and We shed on them abundant showers from the sky, and made the rivers flow beneath them. Yet We destroyed them for their sins, and created after them another generation.   (6:Al-An’am:6)

·        That is because Allah never changeth the grace He hath bestowed on any people until they first change that which is in their hearts, and (that is) because Allah is Hearer, Knower. (Their way is) as the way of Pharaoh’s folk and those before them; they denied the revelations of their Lord, so We destroyed them in their sins. And We drowned the folk of Pharaoh. All were evil-doers, Lo! the worst of beasts in Allah’s sight are the ungrateful who will not believe;   (8:Al-Anfal:53-55)

·        Even thus is the grasp of thy Lord when He graspeth the townships while they are doing wrong. Lo! His grasp is painful, very strong.   (11:Hud:102)

·        And when We would destroy a township We send commandment to its folk who live at ease, and afterward they commit abomination therein, and so the Word (of doom) hath effect for it, and We annihilate it with complete annihilation.   (17:Bani Isra’il:16)

·        And how many a community have We destroyed that was thankless for its means of livelihood! And yonder are their dwellings, which have not been inhabited after them save a little, And We, even We, were the inheritors. And never did thy Lord destroy the townships, till He had raised up in their mother (town) a messenger reciting unto them Our revelations. And never did We destroy the townships unless the folk thereof were evil-doers.   (28:Al-Qasas:58-59)

·        Have they not traveled in the land and seen the nature of the consequence for those who were before them? They were stronger than these in power, and they dug the earth and built upon it more than these have built. Messengers of their own came unto them with clear proofs (of Allah’s Sovereignty). Surely Allah wronged them not, but they did wrong themselves. Then evil was the consequence to those who dealt in evil, because they denied the revelations of Allah and made a mock of them.   (30:Ar-Rum:9-10)

·        Have they not traveled in the land to see the nature of the consequence for those before them? They were more numerous than these, and mightier in power and (in the) traces (which they left behind them) in the earth. But all that they used to earn availed them not. And when their messengers brought them clear proofs (of Allah’s Sovereignty) they exulted in the knowledge they (themselves) possessed. And that which they were wont to mock befell them. Then, when they saw Our doom, they said: we believe in Allah only and reject (all) that we used to associate (with Him). But their faith could not avail them when they saw Our doom. This is Allah’s law which hath ever taken course for His bondmen. And then the disbelievers will be ruined.   (40:Al-Mu’min:82-85)

Role of the rich in the downfall

The rich and the wealthy people whose interests are attached to the existing order always try to protect the status quo and vehementally oppose those who struggle to bring change. So the Prophets of God were also opposed by the rich and well-to-do persons of their nations. They rejected Allah’s message, ridiculed and oppressed Allah’s messengers and persecuted those-generally poor and helpless persons-who believed and followed the Prophets. Following are some of the verses of the Qur’an which bring in focus how the rich persons rejected the Prophets and incurred Allah’s wrath Who sent His torment and destroyed them and their nations:

·        And when a Surah is revealed (which saith): Believe in Allah and strive along with His messenger, the men of wealth among them still ask leave of thee and say: Suffer us to be with those who sit (at home). They are content that they should be with the useless and their hearts are sealed, so that they apprehend not.   (9:At-Taubah:86-87)

·        And when We would destroy a township We send commandment to its folk who live at ease, and afterward they commit abomination therein, and so the Word (of doom) hath effect for it, and We annihilate it with complete annihilation.   (17:Bani Isra’il:16)

·        And the chieftains of his folk, who disbelieved and denied the meeting of the Hereafter, and whom We had made soft in the life of the world, said: This is only a mortal like you, who eateth of that whereof ye eat and drinketh of that ye drink. If ye were to obey a mortal like yourselves, ye surely would be losers.   (23:Al-Mu’minun:33-34)

·        And We sent not unto any township a warner, but its pampered ones declared: Lo! we are disbelievers in that which ye bring unto us. And they say: We are more (than you) in wealth and children. We are not the punished!   (34:saba’:34-35)

·        And even so We sent not a warner before thee (Muhammad) into any township but its luxurious ones said: Lo! we found our fathers following a religion, and we are following their footprints. (And the warner) said: What! Even though I bring you better guidance than that ye found your fathers following? They answered: Lo! in what ye bring we are disbelievers. So We requited them. Then see the nature of the consequence for the rejecters!   (43:Az-Zukhruf:23-25)

Term fixed for every nation

Allah has appointed term for every nation during which a nation is provided opportunity to believe, to listen to its messenger and to improve its conduct. This fixed term can neither be extended, nor can be advanced nor put off. The Qur’an says:

·        And every nation hath its term, and when its term cometh, they cannot put it off an hour nor yet advance (it).   (7:Al-A’raf:34)

·        And they say: When will this promise be fulfilled, if ye are truthful? Say: I have no power to hurt or benefit myself, save that which Allah willeth. For every nation there is an appointed time. When their time cometh, then they cannot put it off an hour, nor hasten (it).   (10:Yunus:48-49)

·        And We destroyed no township but there was a known decree for it. No nation can outstrip its term nor can they lag behind.   (15:Al-Hijr:4-5)

·        If Allah were to take mankind to task for their wrong-doing, He would not leave hereon a living creature, but He reprieveth them to an appointed term, and when their term cometh they cannot put (it) off an hour nor (yet) advance (it).   (16:An-Nahl:61)

·        No nation can outstrip its term, nor yet postpone it.   (23:Al-Mu’minun:43)

Warning before Punishment

Allah is not cruel to His creatures nor He punishes any people or nation without first warning them through His messengers and warners. The messengers come to them, they tell them the truth about God and also apprise the people about their guilt and sin. If the people do not take heed and do not reform themselves, then they are punished. The Qur’an says:

·        And verily We have raised in every nation a messenger (proclaiming). Serve Allah and shun false gods. Then some of them (there were) whom Allah guided, and some of them (there were) upon whom error had just hold. Do but travel in the land and see the nature of the consequence for the deniers!   (16:An-Nahl:36)

·        And We destroyed no township but it had its warners for reminder, for We never were oppressors.   (26:Ash-Shu’ara’:208-209)

·        And never did thy Lord destroy the townships, till He had raised up in their mother (-town) a messenger reciting unto them Our revelations. And never did We destroy the townships unless the folk thereof were evil-doers.   (28:Al-Qasas:59)

When punishment comes, no extension is granted

When Allah decides to punish a guilty people and sends His torment, then He does not hold it back. Then none else can avert it nor any body can grant any extension or respite. Even the profession of belief by the guilty people cannot avert the torment (40:84-85). Only exception to this rule has been the community of Prophet Jonah whom Allah Himself saved when they saw the torment, because they repented and sincerely believed (al-Quran 10:98). According to the commentators, the reason of this exception was that Prophet Jonah left the place after warning his people without Allah’s permission. Following are some of the verses of the Qur’an which highlight this issue:

·        Are the people of the townships then secure from the coming of Our wrath upon them as a night-raid while they sleep? Or are the people of the townships then secure from the coming of Our wrath upon them in the daytime while they play?   (7:Al-A’raf:97-98)

·        Say: I have no power to hurt or benefit myself, save that which Allah willeth. For every nation there is an appointed time. When their time cometh, then they cannot put it off an hour, nor hasten (it).   (10:Yunus:49)

·        For him are angels ranged before him and behind him, who guard him by Allah’s command. Lo! Allah changeth not the condition of a folk until they (first) change that which is in their hearts; and if Allah willeth misfortune for a folk there is none that can repel it, nor have they a defender beside Him.   (13:Ar-Ra’d:11)

·        Then, when they saw Our doom, they said: We believe in Allah only and reject (all) that we used to associate (with Him). But their faith could not avail them when they saw Our doom. This is Allah’s law which hath ever taken course for His bondsmen. And then the disbelievers will be ruined.   (40:Al-Mu’min:84-85)

Allah repels one people by means of others

Sometimes Allah punishes a nation directly by sending His torment in the shape of flood, earthquake, thunderstorm, hurricane, drowning in the sea, etc. but more often Allah punishes a people by inflicting defeat or disgrace upon them at the hands of another people. Following verses of the Qur’an highlight this second situation:

·        So they routed them by Allah’s leave and David slew Goliath; and Allah gave him the kingdom and wisdom, and taught him of that which he willeth. And if Allah had not repelled some men by others the earth would have been corrupted. But Allah is a Lord of Kindness to (His) creatures.   (2:Al-Baqarah:251)

·        So when the time for the first of the two (punishments) came, We roused against you (O children of Israel) slaves of Ours of great might who ravaged (your) country, and it was a threat performed. Then We gave you once again your turn against them, and We aided you with wealth and children and made you more in soldiery. (saying): If ye do good, ye do good for your own souls, and if ye do evil, it is for them (in like manner). So, when the time for the second (of the judgements) came (We roused against you others of Our slaves) to ravage you, and to enter the Temple even as they entered it the first time, and to lay waste all that they conquered with an utter wasting.   (17:Bani Isra’il:5-7)

·        Those who have been driven from their homes unjustly only because they said: Our Lord is Allah-For had it not been for Allah’s repelling some men by means of others, cloisters and churches and oratories and mosques, wherein the name of Allah is oft mentioned, would assuredly have been pulled down. Verily Allah helpeth one who helpeth Him. Lo! Allah is Strong. Almighty.   (22:Al-Hajj:40)

Examples of destruction of some ancient nations

The Qur’an tells us that some of the ancient nations which disbelieved in Allah, rejected the warners and messenger sent by Allah to them, and denied the truth and did evil deeds, were punished by Allah and completely destroyed. Examples given by the Qur’an of such nations are the nation of Noah, the tribes of Aad and Thumud, the people of Lot, the people of Midian, Pharaoh and his folk. The Qur’an says:

·        Hath not the fame of those before them reached them the folk of Noah, A’ad, Thamud, the folk of Abraham, the dwellers of Midian and the disasters (which befell them)? Their messengers (from Allah) came unto them with proofs (of Allah’s sovereignty). So Allah surely wronged them not, but they did wrong themselves.   (9:At-Taubah:70)

·        If they deny thee (Muhammad), even so the folk of Noah, and (the tribes of) Aad and Thamud, before thee, denied (Our messengers); and the folk of Abraham and the folk of Lot; (and) the dwellers in Midian. And Moses was denied; but I indulged the disbelievers for a long while, then I seized them, and how terrible was My abhorrence!   (22:Al-Hajj:42-44) 

·        Then We sent Moses and his brother Aaron with Our tokens and a clear warrant Unto Pharaoh and his chiefs, but they scorned (them) and they were despotic folk. And they said: Shall we put faith in two mortals like ourselves, and whose folk are servile unto us? So they denied them, and became of those who were destroyed.   (23:Al-Mu’minun:45-48)

·        And Lot! When he said unto his folk: will ye commit abomination knowingly? Must ye need lust after men instead of women? Nay, but ye are folk who act senselessly. But the answer of his folk was naught save that they said: Expel the household of Lot from your township, for they (forsooth) are folk who would keep clean! Then We saved him and his household save his wife; We destined her to be of those who stayed behind. And We rained a rain upon them. Dreadful is the rain for those who have been warned.   (27:An-Naml:54-58)

·        And unto Midian we sent Shu’eyb, their brother. He said: O my people! Serve Allah, and look forward to the Last Day, and do not evil, making mischief, in the earth. But they denied him, and the dreadful earthquake took them, and morning found them prostrate in their dwelling-place.   (29:Al-Ankabut:36-37)

·        The folk of Noah denied before them, yea, they denied Our slave and said: A madman; and he was repulsed. So he cried unto his Lord, saying: I am vanquished, so give help. Then opened We the gates of heaven with pouring water. And caused the earth to gush forth springs, so that the waters met for a predestined purpose. And We carried him upon a thing of planks and nails, That ran (upon the waters) in Our sight, as a reward for him who was rejected. And verily We left it as a token; but is there any that remembereth? Then see how (dreadful) was My punishment after My warnings!   (54:Al-Qamar:9-16)

·        (The Tribes of) Thamud and A’ad disbelieved in the judgement to come. As for Thamud, they were destroyed by the lightning. And as for A’ad, they were destroyed by a fierce roaring wind. Which He imposed on them for seven long nights and eight long days so that thou mightest have seen men lying overthrown, as they were hollow trunks of palm-trees.    (69:Al-Haqqah:4-7)

Let us now write brief notes about these nations of the old which were destroyed for their rejection of Allah’s messengers and His revelations as stated in the above mentioned verses of the Holy Qur’an.

Noah’s Nation

The people to whom Allah sent Prophet Noah as His messenger lived in Mesopotamian plains, the area of ancient Iraq. They worshipped idols such as Wadd, Suwa’, Yaghuth, Yauq and Nasr. Prophet Noah lived among them for 950 years and preached to them day and night to believe in and worship Allah alone, but they thrust their fingers in their ears and refused to listen to his call. Instead they persisted in disbelief and followed their chiefs who were proud and arrogant and who ridiculed and rejected Prophet Noah. Very few of these people who were considered poor and low accepted Noah’s mission. Digusted with their attitude, Prophet Noah invoked Allah’s punishment on them, which at last came in the form of a big deluge. Naoh, his family except his son Cannan, few people who believed in Noah, and some species of animals were saved in a ship, but all others were drowned and completely destroyed.  

The story of Noah’s nation has been told by the Qur’an in its following Chapters and verses: 7(59-64), 10(71-73), 11(25-48), 23(23-30), 26(105-122), 54(9-16) and 71(1-28).

Kindly also refer to Prophet Noah in Chapter 34

A’ad, the Nation of Hud

These people were called after their ancestor named Aad who was grandson of Prophet Noah’s son Sam. The A’ad people lived in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula, in the area alongwith Persian Gulf extending from Yemen to Iraq. Their metropolis was Ahqaf, situated in the north of Hadramaut with Oman in the east. The Aad people were very strong and tall in stature, had fertile lands, lived in stone-built beautiful houses and had a lot of wealth. Excavations made recently have found the remains of the city of Ubar (where these people lived) somewhere near to the coasts of Oman. According to Sulaiman Nadvi, the climax of power of these people was the period around 2200 B.C. One of their kings named Shaddad who was very proud and rebellious to God, is reported to have built a paradise, but he could not inaugurate it as he died on its gate.

The Aad people have also been called by the Qur’an as Aad-e-Oola, while the orientalists call them Umam-e-Samia. Power and prowess corrupted these people as it does many individuals and nations. These people became rebellious and disobedient to God and fell into idol worship. Allah sent to them Prophet Hud as His messenger who invited them to the worship of Allah alone and renunciation of idols. But they rejected the Prophet and opted to stand by their idols. So the terrible torment in the form of a big hurricane struck them for eight days and seven nights leveling their habitations to the ground.

The Qur’an has mentioned the story of these people in its following verses: 7(65-72), 9(70), 11(50-60), 26(123-140), 29(38), 46(21-26), 69(4-8), 89(6-8). Please also refer to Prophet Hud in Chapter 34. 

Thamud, the Nation of Salih

These people were called after their ancestor Thamud who was a great grandson of Noah’s son Sam. They inhabited Hajar, the plain between Syria and the Hijaz, known in those days the Valley of Al-Qura’a, a rocky fertile land. The Egyptian archaeologists have found a large house in their ruins which are still to be seen. This house is said to be a royal palace carved out of a mountain having several rooms and a big pound. Like their kin A’ad, these people were wealthy, proud and rebellious to God. They were expert stone-carvers who carved splendid houses, castles and temples in the mountains. As the A’ad are called Aad-e-Iram, so the Thamud are called Thamud-e-Iram and also as Second A’ad. The period of these people is not exactly known. However, it is certain that they lived after A’ad and before Prophet Abraham.

Like A’ad, these people were also idolaters. They disbelieved in God, worshipped stone idols and oppressed the poor and the weak among them. Allah sent Prophet Salih to these people who called them to believe in God and shun idol-worship. But they refused to obey him. Rather they asked him to produce a miracle. So at their demand, Salih prayed to God Who produced a she-camel by splitting asunder a mountain. Instead of accepting this miracle and believing in God, one of their chiefs cut the legs of the she-camel and killed her. There were nine notorious persons among these people who devised a plan to kill Prophet Salih and his family. So God sent a terrible torment to seize these people in the form of an earthquake. Thus were destroyed the Thamud, the people of Salih.

The Qur’an mentions these people in its following verse: 7(73-79), 9(70), 11(61-68), 22(42), 26(141-159) 27(45-53), 54(23-31), 85(17-20), 91(11-15), please also refer to Prophet Salih in Chapter 34.

People of Abraham

People to whom Prophet Abraham was sent have been called by some scholars as the Chaldean people who lived in ancient Iraq, then known as the Babylonian empire. These people were Sabaean by religion and, according to Maulana Abdul Majid Daryabadi’s research, they were worshippers of Allah in the beginning but later on they fell into worship of idols and heavenly bodies like sun, stars and moon. Their kings claimed to be the incarnations of Sungod and hence gods in their own right.

Abraham was sent by Allah as His messenger to these people. Abraham’s father Azar was a great sculptor and dedicated to idolworship. Abraham argued with his father and his people about total inability of the idols to do anything as they were mere statues of stone. He tried to preach to the people idea of One God of the whole of universe who alone deserves to be worshipped, but his father and his people refused to listen. One day Abraham found opportunity, entered the temple and broke their idols to pieces. The people were subdued by Abraham’s argument, but they did not accept his faith. Rather they thought of punishing Abraham. Meanwhile the matter reached the king Namrud who has been identified by some scholars as the famous Hamurabi who is credited having given to the ancient world the first or one of the first legal codes. Namrud had a hot conversation with Abraham about the concept of God (which the Qur’an mentions in its verse 2:258). Then he arranged a blazing fire into which Abraham was thrown. However, Allah saved Abraham and ordered the fire to be cool and security for Abraham.

The Qur’an does not tell us how this nation was destroyed. However, it counts this nation among the destroyed nations of the old (see verse 9:70, 22:42-44). Please also read Abraham in Chapter 34. 

People of Lot

The people of Sodom and Gomorrah to whom Allah sent Prophet Lot as His messenger were very wicked people. They indulged in the evil of unnatural sex i.e. homosexuality. According to the Qur’an, they were the first people who invented and started this evil. They preferred men to women for sexual enjoyment and hence the curse is known as sodomy after the name of their main city Sodom. Besides this evil of sodomy which they committed in public assemblies feeling no shame, they were also addicted to highway robbery. Prophet Lot tried his best to persuade his people to fear Allah and give up these evils, but like hardened criminals they refused. When Allah sent His angels in the form of beautiful men as a final test before sending His punishment, these wicked people stormed Lot’s house to get the beautiful men. Lot offered his daughters, but they rejected the offer and threatened Lot with dire consequences if he did not fulfil their demand. So Allah’s torment seized these people and destroyed them with rain of stones.

Please refer to the following verses of the Qur’an to know about these people: 7(80-84), 11(77-83), 15(57-77), 22(43), 26(160-175), 27(54-58), 29(26-35), 37(133-138), 54(33-39). Also read about Prophet Lot in Chapter 34.

People of Shuaib

Some scholars hold that Allah sent Prophet Shuaib to two nations: the people of Madyan and the companions of Aikah (also called dwellers in the wood). The people of Madyan were descendants of Madyan, the son of Prophet Abraham, and their metropolis Madyan is also named after their ancestor. These people were also known as Bani Katura after the name of their grand mother Katura, the third wife of Abraham. These people lived in a region adjacent to Syria and Sinai desert along the eastern bank of Red Sea. People of Aikah or dwellers in the wood lived in the rural areas close to the city of Madyan. They were known as companions of Aikah as they worshipped Aikah which, according to some scholars was the name of a tree and according to some others it was the name of an idol. Both these nations were devoted to idol worship and were given to business malpractices like short weighing and short measuring. They also indulged in highway robbery. Prophet Shuaib preached to them to give up business malpractices and idol worship. He invited them to the worship of One True God. But they threatened him with dire consequences if he did not return to their faith. So Allah sent His torment and an earthquake with a terrible sound destroyed these people.

Please read Prophet Shuaib’s story in Chapter 34 and also refer to following verses of the Qur’an: 7(85-93), 9(70), 11(84-95), 15(78-79), 22(44), 26(176-191), 29(36-37), 38(13).

Pharaoh and his folk

Pharaoh is the title of the kings who ruled Egypt for almost three thousand years before Christ. They belonged to various dynasties. Joseph, a great grandson of Prophet Abraham, reached Egypt as a slave at young age of seventeen in 1600 B.C. during the reign of the sixteenth Pharaoh, named Ababi I. However, God elevated him to the office of a very powerful and a very trusted minister of Pharaoh of Egypt. Then Joseph invited his father Prophet Jacob and his eleven brothers along with their families to Egypt where they permanently settled. At Joseph’s request, the Pharaoh allotted the fertile land of Goshen to Israelites. But the progress of the Israelites in agriculture, trade and commerce and their prosperity aroused the jealousies of the Egyptians very soon. This gave birth to an intentional discriminatory policy of the Egyptian government against the Israelite which reduced them to the status of serfs and slaves and a cheap labour force. Some four centuries after Joseph, there came to the throne of Egypt a Pharaoh whose hatred towards Israelites was open and severe. He was Ramses-II who, according to historians, had been told by his astronomers that a child would born among the Israelites who would put an end to his power and throne. He therefore ordered that male children of Israelites must be killed while female children should be spared for service to the Egyptians. Moses was born during this period and the Qur’an, in its Surah 20 and 28 tells us how God saved him from assassination and arranged his nursing and bringing up in the very house of the Pharaoh himself. Surah 28 also tells us how Moses killed an Egyptian, fled to Madyan, got married and was commissioned as Prophet of God.

Allah gave Moses two miracles, the miracle of rod and shining hand, and deputed him and, at his request, his brother Aaron, to the court of Pharaoh as His messengers. Both the messengers were directed to speak to Pharaoh softly and tell him to fear Allah, to return to Allah’s right path, to liberate the Israelites from bondage and to let them leave Egypt.

Pharaohs and Egyptians worshipped many gods ranging from animal-gods to heavenly bodies. They had different gods for different purposes. They even counted river Nile and their kings, the Pharaohs, among their gods. Pharaoh and his people were not convinced by the preachings of Moses nor by his miracles. Rather they considered him a magician who wanted to destroy their high civilization and also wanted to deprive them of their country and lands. A contest was arranged at the orders of Pharaoh between Moses and some selected and expert magicians in which the magicians accepted their defeat and embraced faith of Moses. But Pharaoh and his courtiers were not still convinced of truth. Ultimately Moses decided to flee from Egypt along with his people. Pharaoh and his hosts chased Moses. Allah brought Moses and his people across the sea miraculously while He drowned Pharaoh and his hosts.

The Qur’an does not tell us the name of the Pharaoh who persecuted Moses and his people and who was drowned in the sea. However, it tells in detail about the nature of Pharaoh and his people and about the debates which took place between Moses and Pharaoh. It tells us that Pharaoh was an arrogant and a proud ruler who divided the people into castes. Some people he oppressed and some he exalted. Although he was a great tyrant who oppressed the Israelites severely, yet his wife (whose name according to some scholars was Aasia) was a pious lady who believed in the Truth, expressed her disgust with Pharaoh and his deeds, and prayed to God for a home in Paradise (al-Qur’an 66:11). At the time of drowning, Pharaoh expressed his belief in God, but God did not accept his belief at this belated stage and did not save him from drowning. His body was, however, saved as a portent to the wicked after him (al-Qur’an 10:90-92).

According to some of the scholars, the Pharaoh of Moses was Ramses II, and according to some others he was his son Manphetah who ruled Egypt from 1292 B.C. to 1225 B.C. Yet some other scholars say that Moses had to deal with both these Pharaohs. He was reared as child in the palace of Ramses II, while he was rejected as messenger by Manphetah who was drowned.

For further information, please read the story of Moses in Chapter 34 and also refer to the following verses of the Qur’an: 7(103-124), 7(130-136), 20(43-79), 23(45-48), 26(10-68), 28(3-6), 40(23-46), 43(46-56), 44(17-29).


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