Man, Jinn and the Angels are all creations of God. All these three creations of God are intelligent beings and are considered to possess the faculty of thinking and distinguishing between good and bad. But while the men and the jinn have been given freedom of action and of choosing for them the right or the wrong way, the angels have no such choice as they completely submit to God and obey His orders. So the men and the jinn will be held accountable for their deeds on the Day of Judgement, but the angels will face no such accountability. God created the man from potter’s clay, created the jinn from smokeless fire and created the angels from light and so all these species have distinctive features and traits.


Best of all creations

Man is regarded as the best of all creations. Allah has honoured the children of Adam and has preferred them over many of His creations. Allah created Adam out of clay and asked the angels and Iblis (who is jinn) to prostrate to him. All prostrated except Iblis. Allah declared Iblis an outcast when Iblis tried to establish his superiority over man. This shows how God preferred man to angels and Jinn. The Qur’an says:

·        And (remember) when thy Lord said unto the angels: Lo! I am creating a mortal out of potter’s clay of black mud altered. So, when I have made him and have breathed into him of My spirit, do ye fall down prostrating yourselves unto him. So the angels fell prostrate, all of them together, Save Iblis. He refused to be among the prostrate. He said: O Iblis! What aileth thee that thou art not among the prostrate? He said: Why should I prostrate myself unto a mortal whom Thou hast created out of potter’s clay of black mud altered? He said: Then go thou forth from hence, for verily thou art outcast.   (15:Al-Hijr:28-34)

·        Verily We have honoured the children of Adam. We carry them on the land and the sea, and have made provision of good things for them, and have preferred them above many of those whom We created with a marked preferment.   (17:Bani Isra’il:70)

·        See ye not how Allah hath made serviceable unto you whatsoever is in the skies and whatsoever is in the earth and hath loaded you with His favours both without and within? Yet of mankind is he who disputeth concerning Allah, without knowledge or guidance or a Scripture giving light.   (31:Luqman:20)

·        Allah it is Who appointed for you the earth for a dwelling-place and the sky for a canopy, and fashioned you and perfected your shapes, and hath provided you with good things. Such is Allah, your Lord. Then blessed be Allah, the Lord of the worlds!   (40:Al-Mu’min:64)

·        Surely We created man of the best stature.   (95:At-Tin:4)

Caliph on earth

God has appointed man a viceroy, deputy or vicegerent (called caliph in Arabic) in the earth and made serviceable to him whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth. Man has been given power in the earth and also independence of action to regulate and manage the things in the earth. This has been done with a view that God may try the man how he behaves with himself, with others and also with respect to his Creator. The Qur’an highlights the fact of appointment of man as caliph in its following verses:

·        And when thy Lord said unto the angels: Lo! I am about to place a viceroy in the earth. They said: Wilt Thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise and sanctify Thee? He said: Surely I know that which ye know not.   (2:Al-Baqarah:30)

·        He it is Who hath placed you as viceroys of the earth and hath exalted some of you in rank above others, that He may try you by (the test of) that which He hath given you. Lo! thy Lord is swift in prosecution, and lo! He is Forgiving. Merciful.   (6:Al-An’am:165)

Everything in service of man

The Qur’an in its following verses tells us that God has made everything in the heavens and in the earth serviceable to man, such as sun, moon, stars, day and night, water, rain, seas, rivers, mountains, plants, and animals.

·        And he its is Who hath set for you the stars that ye may guide your course by them amid the darkness of the land and the sea. We have detailed Our revelations for a people who have knowledge.   (6:Al-An’am:97)

·        Allah is He Who created the heavens and the earth and causeth water to descend from the sky, thereby producing fruit as food for you, and maketh the ships to be of service unto you that they may run upon the sea at His command, and hath made of service unto you the rivers. And maketh the sun and the moon, constant in their courses, to be of service unto you, and hath made of service unto you the night and the day.   (14:Ibrahim:32-33)

·        And the cattle hath He created, whence ye have warm clothing and uses and whereof ye eat: And wherein is beauty for you, when ye bring them home, and when ye take them out to pasture.   (16:An-Nahl:5-6)

·        Allah it is Who hath made the sea of service unto you that the ships may run thereon by His command, and that ye may seek of His bounty, and that haply ye may be thankful; And hath made of service unto you whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth; it is all from Him Lo! herein verily are portents for people who reflect.   (45:Al-Jathiyah:12-13)


His birth and stages in life

God created mankind from a single soul and that single soul (Adam) was created from clay. And from that single soul was created its mate (Eve) and from them twain (Adam and Eve) was created a multitude of men and women. These facts have been brought home by the Qur’an. The Qur’an also tells us how drop of fluid in mother’s womb develops into a living baby and how a baby gets its birth into this world. It also throws light how an infant attains full strength and enters into youth and then how he grows into old age and forgets all the  knowledge which he had attained. Thus speaks the Qur’an:

·        O mankind! If ye are in doubt concerning the Resurrection, then lo! We have created you from dust, then from a drop of seed, then from a clot, then from a little lump of flesh shapely and shapeless, that We may make (it) clear for you. And We cause what We will to remain in the wombs for an appointed time, and afterward We bring you forth as infants, then (give you growth) that ye attain your full strength. And among you there is he who dieth (young), and among you there is he who is brought back to the most abject time of life, so that, after knowledge, he knoweth naught. And thou (Muhammad) seest the earth barren, but when We send down water thereon, it doth thrill and swell and put forth every lovely kind (of growth).   (22:Al-Hajj:5)

·        Verily We created man from a product of wet earth; then placed him as a drop (of seed) in a safe lodging; Then fashioned We the drop a clot then fashioned We the clot a little lump, then fashioned We the little lump bones, then clothed the bones with flesh, and then produced it as another creation. So blessed be Allah, the Best of Creators!   (23:Al-Mu’minun:12-14)

·        Who made all things good which He created, and He began the creation of man from clay; Then He made his seed from a draught of despised fluid; Then He fashioned him and breathed into him of His spirit; and appointed for you hearing and sight and hearts. Small thanks give you!   (32:As-Sajdah:7-9)

·        He created you from one being, then from that (being) He made its mate; and He hath provided for you of cattle eight kinds. He created you in the wombs of your mothers, creation after creation, in a threefold gloom. Such is Allah, your Lord. His is the Sovereignty. There is no God save Him. How then are ye turned away?   (39:Az-Zumar:6)

·        He it is Who created you from dust, then from a drop (of seed), then from a clot, then bringeth you forth as a child, then (ordaineth) that ye attain full strength and afterward that ye become old men – though some among you die before – and that ye reach an appointed term, that halply ye may understand.   (40:Al-Mu’min:67)

·        Man is (self-) destroyed: how ungrateful! From what thing doth He create him? From a drop of seed He createth him and proportioneth him, Then maketh the way easy for him, Then causeth him to die, and burieth him; Then, when He will, He bringeth him again to life.   (80:’Abasa:17-22)

Man’s nature

In the following verses, the Qur’an highlights the nature of man, his characteristics and the various traits of his personality and bearing:

·        Beautified for mankind is love of the joys (that come) from women and offspring, and stored-up heaps of gold and silver, and horses branded (with their mark), and cattle and land. That is comfort of the life of the world. Allah! With Him is a more excellent abode.   (3:Al-Imran:14)

·        Allah would make the burden light for you, for man was created weak.   (4:An-Nisa:28)

·        And if misfortune touch a man he crieth unto Us (while reclining) on his side or sitting or standing, but when We have relieved him of the misfortune he goeth his way as though he had not cried unto Us because of a misfortune that afflicted him. Thus is, what they do, made (seeming) fair unto the prodigal.   (10:Yunus:12)

·        And if We cause man to taste some mercy from Us and afterward withdraw it from him lo! he is despairing thankless. And if We cause him to taste grace after some misfortune that had befallen him, he saith: The ills have gone from me. Lo! he is exultant, boastful:   (11:Hud:9-10) 

·        (One said)! Kill Joseph or cast him to some (other) land, so that your father’s favour may be all for you, and (that) ye may afterward be righteous folk.   (12:Yusuf:9)

·        And He giveth you of all ye ask of Him, and if ye would count the bounty of Allah ye cannot reckon it. Lo! man is verily a wrong-doer, and ingrate.   (14:Ibrahim:34)

·        Lo! We offered the trust unto the heavens and the earth and the hills, but they shrank from bearing it and were afraid of it. And man assumed it. Lo! he hath proved a tyrant and a fool.   (33:Al-Ahzab:72)

·        Now when hurt toucheth a man he crieth unto Us, and afterward when We have granted him a boon from Us, he saith: Only by force of knowledge I obtained it. Nay, but it is a test. But most of them know not.   (39:Az-Zumar:49)

·        Lo! man was created anxious. Fretful when evil befalleth him. And, when good befalleth him, grudging;   (70:Al-Ma’arij:19-21)

·        Nay, but verily man is rebellious, That he thinketh himself independent!   (96:Al-‘Alaq:6-7)

·        Lo! man is an ingrate unto his Lord. And lo! he is a witness unto that; And lo! in the love of wealth he is violent.   (100:Al-‘Adiyat:6-8)

His deeds are recorded

In the following verses the Qur’an tells us that every man’s deeds are recorded in register or books which are called records of Deeds or Books of Deeds. God has appointed two angels called Keramen Katibeen (the honourable scribes) with every person (82:10-12). These angels record every action which an individual does, whether it is small or great and whether it is good or bad. On the Day of Judgement these actions would be shown to man and his book of deeds would be given to him. Whoever is given his book of deeds in his right hand would be lucky and would enter into Paradise while bad person would be given his book of deeds in left hand or behind his back. He would be unlucky as he would enter into Hell.

·        And every man’s augury have We fastened to his own neck, and We shall bring forth for him one the Day of Resurrection a book which he will find wide open. (And it will be said unto him): Read thy book. Thy soul sufficeth as reckoner against thee this day.   (17:Bani Isra’il:13-14)

·        And the Book is placed, and thou seest the guilty fearful of that which is therein, and they say: What kind of a book is this that leaveth not a small thing nor a great thing but hath counted it! And they find all that they did confronting them, and thy Lord wrongeth no one.   (18:Al-Kahf:49)

·        Lo! We it is Who bring the dead to life. We record that which they send before (them), and their footprints. And all things We have kept in a clear register.   (36:Ya Sin:12)

·        And everything they do is in the books. And every small and great thing is recorded.   (54:Al-Qamr:52-53)

·        Lo! there are above you guardians (angels), Generous and recording, Who know (all) that ye do.   (82:Al-Infitar:10-12)

·        Nay, but the record of the vile is in Sijjin – Ah! What will convey unto thee what Sijjin is! – A written record.   (83:Al-Mutaffifin:7-9)

·        Nay, but the record of the righteous is in Illiyyin – Ah, what will convey unto thee what ‘Illiyyin’ is!- A written record, Attested by those who are brought near (unto their Lord).   (83:Al-Mutaffifin:18-21)

·        Then whoso is given his account in his right hand. He truly will receive an easy reckoning. And will return unto his folk in joy. But whoso is given his account behind his back, He surely will invoke destruction. And be thrown to scorching fire.   (84:Al-Inshiqaq:7-12)

·        That day mankind will issue forth in scattered groups to be shown their (record of) deeds. And whoso does good an atom’s weight will see it then. And whoso does ill an atom’s weight will see it then.   (99:Al-Zilzal:6-8)

He will receive reward for his good deeds and punishment for his evil deeds

As stated earlier, man’s actions and deeds are recorded. Whoever performs good actions, believes in God, worships Him only and obeys His messengers will be rewarded in Hereafter; whereas he who disbelieves, rejects Allah’s messengers and performs sinful and evil deeds will be punished. The reward of the former is Paradise full of all blessings, the punishment of the latter is Hell full of all tortures and torments. The Qur’an says:

·        Nay, but whosoever hath done evil and his sin surroundeth him: such are rightful owners of the Fire, they will abide therein. And those who believe and do good works, such are rightful owners of the Garden. They will abide therein.   (2:Al-Baqarah:81-82)

·        And guard yourselves against a day in which ye will be brought back to Allah. Then every soul will be paid in full that which it hath earned, and they will not be wronged.   (2:Al-Baqarah:281)

·        Whoso bringeth a good deed will receive ten-fold the like thereof, while whoso bringeth an ill-deed will be awarded but the like thereof; and they will not be wronged.   (6:Al-An’am:160)

·        Whosoever doth right, whether male or female, and is a believer, him verily We shall quicken with good life, and We shall pay them a recompense in proportion to the best of what they used to do.   (16:An-Nahl:97)

·        Or do those who commit ill-deeds suppose that we shall make them as those who believe and do good works, the same in life and death? Bad is their judgement!   (45:Al-Jathiyah:21)

·        Lo! those who disbelieve, among the People of the Scripture and the idolaters, will abide in fire of Hell. They are the worst of created beings. (And) lo! those who believe and do good works are the best of created beings. There reward is with their Lord: Gardens of Eden underneath which rivers flow, wherein they dwell for ever. Allah hath pleasure in them and they have pleasure in Him. This is (in store) for him who feareth his Lord.   (98:Al-Bayyinah:6-8)

Allah does not task him beyond his capacity

Allah does not task man beyond his capacity. It means that He does not impose greater burden of responsibility on man than man’s capacity to bear. In all matters such as, religious like fasting and offering prayer, financial like payment of Zakat or charity, and physical like Jihad in Allah’s path, man has not been loaded with heavier burden than what he can bear. And who knows better man’s capacity to bear than God Who is the creator of man. The Qur’an says:

·        Allah tasketh not a soul beyond its scope. For it (is only) that which it hath earned, and against it (only) that which it hath deserved.   (2:Al-Baqarag:286)

·        But (as for) those who believe and do good works – We tax not any soul beyond its scope – Such are rightful owners of the Garden. They abide therein.   (7:Al-A’raf:42)

·        And We task not any soul beyond its scope, and with Us is a Record which speaketh the truth, and they will not be wronged.   (23:Al-Mu’minun:62)

Allah tries the man

Allah has created man and has given him power and responsibility just to try and test him. Sometimes Allah tests the man by bestowing on him good fortune and prosperity and sometimes He tests man with hardship, poverty and affliction. He who remains grateful to God in prosperity as well as in misery is indeed successful in the test and such a person would be rewarded. The Qur’an tells in the following verses how God tries the man:

·        And surely we shall try you with something of fear and hunger, and loss of wealth and lives and crops; but give glad tidings to the steadfast. Who say, when a misfortune striketh them: Lo! we are Allah’s and lo!  unto Him we are returning.   (2:Al-Baqarah:155-156)

·        Or think ye that ye will enter Paradise while yet there hath not come unto you the like of (that which came to) those who passed away before you? Affliction and adversity befell them, they were shaken as with earthquake, till the messenger (of Allah) and those who believed along with him said: When cometh Allah’s help? Now surely Allah’s help is nigh.   (2:Al-Baqarah:214)

·        Or deemed ye that ye would enter Paradise while yet Allah knoweth not those of you who really strive, nor knoweth those (of you) who are steadfast?   (3:Al-Imran:142)

·        He it is Who hath placed you as viceroys of the earth and hath exalted some of you in rank above others, that He may try you by (the test of) that which He hath given you. Lo! thy Lord is swift in prosecution, and lo! He is Forgiving, Merciful.   (6:Al-An’am:165)

·        And know that your possessions and your children are a test, and that with Allah is immense reward:   (8:Al-Anfal:28)

·        Every soul must taste of death, and We try you with evil and with good, for ordeal. And unto Us ye will be returned.   (21:Al-Anbiya:35)

·        Who hath created life and death that He may try you, which of you is best in conduct; and He is the Mighty, the Forgiving:   (67:Al-Mulk:2)


There is a lot of controversy among the scholars and commentators of the Qur’an about the reality and existence of Jinn as an independent specie. Some modern scholars have expressed the view that the Jinn are not a real thing, they have no existence, they are merely a figment of superstition. Their view is not based on the claim that they have searched in the world and have discovered that the jinn do not exist. Their view is simply based, without any evidence or proof, on the assumption that nothing exists in the world except what they can see with their eyes. Since they cannot see the jinn, therefore the jinn do not exist. There are some other writers who say that Jinn have no separate and independent existence, but the term sometimes refers to man’s animal forces and sometimes it implies the savage and wild tribes. However, the majority of the scholars of Qur’an believe that the Jinn are a real thing having independent existence like other so many creations of God.

Let us see what the term Jinn means. The root-verb of this term is “janna” which means he “concealed” or “covered with darkness”. According to classical philologists, al-jinn signifies that which is concealed from man’s senses i.e. things, beings or forces which cannot normally be perceived by man, but have, nevertheless, an objective reality of their own. In other words, the Jinn although living organisms are invisible beings with whom our physical senses cannot establish contact except under very exceptional circumstances. The Qur’an in its various verses brings the following facts into our notice about the Jinn:

·        The Jinn, according to the Qur’an are a separate and independent creation of God like men, angels and animals. They are living beings and are invisible to man. They cannot be regarded as belonging to human species. The Qur’an frequently addresses the Jinn and the mankind as separate entities. (please refer to 6:112, 6:128, 11:119, 46:18, 55:15, 55:39, 55:74, 72:1-5).

·        The Jinn, according to the Qur’an, were created before mankind (15:27) and this fact is also affirmed by the story of Adam (the father of men) and Iblis (the Satan) which has been repeated in the Qur’an several times (refer to 2:30-39, 7:11-13, 7:19-23, 20:116-123, 38:72-85). Iblis, who belonged to the specie of Jinn (18:50), was already there when God created Adam and commanded the angels (including Iblis who, according to a tradition, had been included in angels) to prostrate before Adam. All prostrated except Iblis.

·        God created the Jinn from fire while He created the man from clay according to the Qur’an (15:26-27, 55:14-15). Thus Iblis, being a Jinn, considered himself superior to man, and when God asked him why he has not prostrated to Adam at God’s command, Iblis retorted: I am better than him (Adam). You created me from fire while You created him from clay.” (15:12, 38:76).

·        God has made man (Adam and his off-spring) caliph (viceroy) on the earth (Qur’an 2:30, 6:165) and man is superior to the Jinn and many of God’s other creations (Qur’an 17:70). This superiority of the man over jinn is also proved by the fact that God commanded the angels including Iblis (who was a Jinn) to prostrate before Adam (Al-Qur’an 2:34, 7:11, 15:29-33). When Iblis refused, he was declared outcast and disbeliever and was expelled from heaven (Al-Qur’an 2:34, 15:34-35).

·        The Jinn have been blessed by Allah with certain extra-ordinary and super-human powers (al-Qur’an 27:39, 34:12-19). They can see the human beings while the human beings cannot see them (7:27). They can even ascend the heaven, but if they exceed certain limit they are driven away by meteorites (al-Qur’an: 15:16-18, 37:6-10, 72:8-9).

·        The Qur’an has, however, rejected the notions of the pagan Arabs and other ignorant people that the Jinn are associates of God and are related to God, and thus eligible to be worshipped by the human beings (6:100, 34:40-41, 37:158, 72:6). The polytheist Arabs not only worshipped the Jinn but also believed that the Jinn had knowledge of the unseen. The Qur’an has strongly refuted this claim of the polytheists.   (34:14)

·        The Jinn, like men, are blessed with faculty of thinking, freedom of action, to distinguish between good and evil, and to choose between belief and disbelief. This fact is confirmed by the story of Iblis (Satan) which has been repeated at several places in the Qur’an and also by the two incidents reported by the Qur’an (46:29-32 and 72:1-2) when the Jinn listened to the Qur’an and appreciated its guidance. Among the Jinn, there are some believers and good-doers and some evil-doers (Al-Qur’an 72:11-15). Surah (chapter) 55 of the Qur’an tells us that both the men and the Jinn will be held responsible and accountable for their actions and on the Day of Judgement they will be punished for their sins (verse 39-41). Allah also sent messengers to the Jinn for their guidance as He sent messengers to mankind for their guidance (Al-Qur’an 6:130).


It is one of the fundamental articles of faith of a follower of Islam to believe in Allah, Allah’s angels, Allah’s books, Allah’s messengers, and the Last Day (i.e. the Day of Judgement). Following are some of the facts which have been brought into light by the Qur’an (and also by Hadith) about the angels who are one of the creations of Allah:

·        Allah created Angels from light. They are invisible to human eye, have no sex and are appointed to carry out Allah’s commands and glorify Him. Most famous of them are: Gabriel charged with the duty of bringing revelations and messages of Allah to the Prophets; Israfil who will blow the Trumpet on the Day of Resurrection; Mickael appointed for arranging rainfall, Izrael charged to  take souls. Some other angels mentioned in the Qur’an and Hadith are: Harut and Marut (sent by God to test the belief of some nation of the old), Kiraman Katibin (the respected recorders who record the deeds of human beings); Munkir and Nakeer (who would question the dead in graves); angel who brought good tidings of birth of a son to Mary the mother of Jesus; angels who brought good news about birth of Isaac to Abraham; angels who destroyed the people of Lot; angels in charge of Hell and angels who would welcome the righteous in Paradise, etc.

·        About the form of angels the Qur’an tells us that the angels have been created by Allah and have wings two, three and four.   (Al-Qur’an 35:1)

·        They pray for the forgiveness of all who are on the earth   (Al-Qur’an 42:5).

·        Allah and His angels call for blessings on believers (33:43). Allah and His angels call for blessings on Muhammad (PBUH)   (al-Qur’an 33:56).

·        They help the believers 41(30-31).

·        They record deeds of men   (50:17-18, 82:10-12).

·        The unbelievers call the angels females and daughters of Allah   (37:149-152, 53:26-28).

·        On the Day of Judgement they would deny that the human beings used to worship them   (al-Qur’an 34:40-41).

·        They raised objection to the creation of Adam   (2:30-34)

·        They are not sent except for just cause   (15:7-8).

·        They are witness that there is no God safe Him   (3:18).

·        They are also witness to the Qur’an revealed to Muhammad   (4:166).

·        The angels sent by Allah to support Muhammad (PBUH) and his followers in Battle of Uhud (3:124-125) and in Battle of Badr   (8:9 and 12).

·        They prostrate to Allah and fear Him   (16:49-50).

·        They uphold the Throne of Allah   (69:17).

·        Nineteen angels are wardens of the Hell   (74:30-31).


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