1- Satan is Man’s biggest enemy

            We have already studied in the preceding chapter that Iblees (also called Satan or devil) refused to prostrate to Adam and thus disobeyed Allah. At this Allah declared him an outcast and expelled him from Paradise. Satan, however, threw a challenge that if he was given respite, he would beguile Adam and his progeny to evil path. Allah accepted the challenge, gave him respite till the Day of Resurrection and cautioned Adam and his wife to beware of Satan who is their and their children’s open enemy. The Satan first misguided Adam and Eve to eat fruit of the forbidden tree and got them expelled from Paradise, and then resolved to deflect Adam’s children, the mankind, from God’s right path and make them commit evil deeds. He lures mankind to evil path by making their evil deeds seem fair, by convincing them to love wealth and children to the neglect of their duty to God, by making them love lewdness and obscenity, by making false promises to them, etc. Following verses of the Qur’an throw light on this subject:

·        O mankind! Eat of that which is lawful and wholesome in the earth, and follow not the footsteps of the devil. Lo! he is an open enemy for you. He enjoineth upon you only the evil and the foul, and that ye should tell concerning Allah that which ye know not.   (2:Al-Baqarah:168-169)

·        The devil promiseth you destitution and enjoineth on you lewdness. But Allah promiseth you forgiveness from Himself with bounty, Allah is All-embracing, All-knowing.   (2:Al-Baqarah:268)

·        Whom Allah cursed, and he said: Surely I will take of Thy bondmen an appointed portion: And surely I will lead them astray, and surely I will arouse desires in them, and surely I will command them and they will cut the cattle’s ears, and surely I will command them and they will change Allah’s creation. Whoso chooseth Satan for a patron instead of Allah is verily a loser and his loss is manifest. He promiseth them and stirreth up desires in them, and Satan promiseth them only to beguile. For such, their habitation will be hell, and they will find no refuge therefrom.   (4:An-Nisa:118-121)

·        O Ye who believe! Strong drink and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan’s handiwork. Leave it aside in order that ye may succeed. Satan seeketh only to cast among you enmity and hatred by means of strong drink and games of chance, and to turn you from remembrance of Allah and from (His) worship. Will ye then have done?   (5:Al-Ma’idah:90-91)

·        And Satan saith, when the matter hath been decided: Lo! Allah promised you a promise of truth; and I promised you then failed you. And I had no power over you save that I called unto you and ye obeyed me. So blame me not, but blame yourselves. I cannot help you, nor can ye help me. Lo! I disbelieved in that which ye before ascribed to me. Lo! for wrong-doers is a painful doom.   (14:Ibrahim:22)

·        By Allah, We verily sent messengers unto the nations before thee, but the devil made their deeds fair-seeming unto them. So he is their patron this day, and theirs will be a painful doom.   (16:An-Nahl:63)

·        And when thou recitest the Qur’an, seek refuge in Allah from Satan the outcast. Lo! he hath no power over those who believe and put trust in their Lord. His power is only over those who make a friend of him, and those who ascribe partners unto Him (Allah).   (16:An-Nahl:98-100)

·        And (remember) when We said unto the angels: Fall prostrate before Adam, and they fell prostrate, all save Iblis. He was of the Jinn, so he rebelled against his Lord’s command. Will ye choose him and his seed for your protecting friends instead of Me, when they are an enemy unto you? Calamitous is the exchange for evil-doers!   (18:Al-Kahf:50)

·        Lo! the devil is an enemy for you, so treat him as an enemy. He only summoneth his faction to be owners of the flaming Fire.   (35:Al-Fatir:6)

·        But avaunt ye, O ye guilty, this day! Did I not charge you, O ye sons of Adam, that ye worship not the devil-Lo! he is your open foe! – But that ye worship Me? That was the right path. Yet he hath led astray of you a great multitude. Had ye then no sense? This is hell which ye were promised (if ye followed him).   (36:Ya Sin:59-63)

2- Migration

Islam teaches those Muslims who are being persecuted in non-Muslim lands to migrate in the path of Allah and seek asylum in safer places where they could live in peace and practice their faith freely. There are many rewards from Allah the Almighty for those who migrate in His way and for those who offer hospitality to the immigrants. Before discussing the subject of migration further, let us first go through some of the relevant verses of the Holy Qur’an and traditions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).

·        Lo! those who believe, and those who emigrate (to escape the persecution) and strive in the way of Allah, these have hope of Allah’s mercy. Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.   (2:218)

·        Lo! as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they wrong themselves, (the angels) will ask: In what were ye engaged? They will say: We were oppressed in the land. (The angels) will say: Was not Allah’s earth spacious that ye could have migrated therein? As for such, their habitation will be hell, an evil journey’s end: Except the feeble among men, and the women, and the children, who are unable to devise a plan and are not shown a way. As for such it may be that Allah will pardon them. Allah is ever Clement, Forgiving. Whose migrateth for the cause of Allah will find much refuge and abundance in the earth, and whoso forsaketh his home, a fugitive unto Allah and His messenger and death overtaketh him, his reward is then incumbent on Allah, Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful.   (4:97-100)

·        Lo! those who believed and left their homes and strove with their wealth and their lives for the cause of Allah, and those who took them in and helped them: these are protecting friends one of another. And those who believed but did not leave their homes, ye have no duty to protect them till they leave their homes; but if they seek help from you in the matter of religion then it is your duty to help (them) except against a folk between whom and you there is a treaty. Allah is Seer of what ye do. And those who disbelieve are protectors one of another-If ye do not so, there will be confusion in the land and great corruption. Those who believed and left their homes and strove for the cause of Allah and those who took them in and helped them-these are the believers in truth. For them is pardon and a bountiful provision. And those who afterwards believed and left their homes and strove along with you, they are of you; and those who are akin are nearer one to another in the ordinance of Allah. Lo! Allah is Knower of all things.   (8:Al-Anfal:72-75)

·        And those who became fugitives for the cause of Allah after they had been oppressed. We verily shall give them goodly lodging in the world, and surely the reward of the Hereafter is greater. If they but knew:   (16:41)

·        O ye who believe! When believing women come unto you as fugitives, examine them. Allah is best aware of their faith. Then, if ye know them for true believers, send them not back unto the disbelievers. They are not lawful for the disbelievers, nor are the disbelievers lawful for them. And give the disbelievers that which they have spent (upon them). And it is no sin for you to marry such women when ye have given them their dues. 

·        Abdullah-b-Hubshi reported that the Prophet was asked. Which of the actions is best? He said: prolonged standing (in prayer). He was questioned: Which charity is best? He said: Strivings of a man of small means. He was questioned: Which migration is best? He said: He who flees away from what Allah has prohibited him. He was questioned which Jihad is best? He said: He who fights with the polytheists with his property and his life.   (Ibn Majah)

The first ever migration of the oppressed Muslims that took place was that of the Makkan Muslims who migrated to Abyssinia, a Christian country around the year 616 or 617 A.D. To escape from the persecution by the pagan Quraish, the Muslims migrated to the said country, with the permission of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The ruler of Abyssinia not only accorded them a kind treatment but also refused the request made by a high-powered delegation of the Quraish to extradite the Muslims refugees. The Prophet was so much pleased by the hospitality shown by the Abyssinian ruler (Negus) to his followers that he offered funeral prayer of the Negus in absentia when the latter died.

Second migration of the oppressed followers of Islam and this time in the company of the Prophet himself was from Makkah to Madinah in the year 622 A.D. This is very important event in the history of Islam as well as of the world because Muslim Calendar of Hijrah dates back from this event. The Muslims of Madinah welcomed their brothers from Makkah and showed them the hospitality which has become a model to emulate for the later generations. The Qur’an praises their hospitality and Allah showered His blessings upon the Helpers (Ansar) of Madinah and the immigrants (Muhajirin) of Makkah.

The later Muslims have never lagged behind in following the golden traditions of their predecessors in offering hospitality to the persecuted refugees. Only recently Pakistan offered its hospitality to more than three million Muslim refugees from Afghanistan when that country was invaded by the Russian communists. Pakistan has also been a long time host of the Kashmiris who migrate to this country in the event of Indian oppression.

3- Jizyah

Jizyah is a highly controversial subject which has attracted most hostile criticism against Islam and early Muslims. Jizyah (or Poll-Tax as it is called by the western writers) is a tax which was charged by the Islamic state, on the authority of the Qur’an, from its non-Muslim conquered people who submitted to the Islamic rule and agreed to pay it generally under a treaty of peace. Non-Muslim writers, particularly of the modern age, call this tax as most-discriminatory, which, according to them, is charged by the Islamic state to humiliate its non-Muslim subjects. In this section, we shall discuss Jizyah in detail in the light of the Qur’an and the Sunnah and also in the light of the practice of the early caliphs of Islam, and would try to establish how the picture of this humble levy has been wrongly painted by the Non-Muslim writers because of their prejudice against Islam.

Meaning and Rules of Jizyah

Jizyah is derived from ‘Jaza’ which means ‘recompense’ or ‘compensation’. It is a tax imposed by an Islamic State on its non-Muslim subjects in lieu of protection given to their lives and properties. The non-Muslims are called Zimmis or protected or covenanted people. The tax is also called ‘tribute’ or ‘poll-tax’.

Jizyah is levied on the authority of Al-Qur’an (Chapter 9, verse 29) which commands the believers: “fight against such of those who have been given the scripture as believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, and forbid not that which Allah hath forbidden by His messenger, and follow not the religion of truth, until they pay the tribute (Jizyah) readily, being brought low”.

Rules framed in respect of Jizyah in the light of the Qur’an, Sunnah of the Prophet and practice of the right-guided caliphs are as follows:-

1.      Though Jizyah was initially imposed on people of scripture (Ahl-e-Kitab), later on when the non-Arab countries were conquered by the Muslims, it was imposed on all non-Muslim communities of every faith. However, it is levied on able-bodied adult male non-Muslims who are capable to participate in war but who do not join the defence forces of the Islamic State.

2.      The following classes of Zimmis (protected people) are exempt from the payment of Jizyah tax:-

a)     All females.

b)     Males below age of puberty.

c)     Old men.

d)     All sick, blind or crippled.

e)     Priests and monks.

f)      The slaves.

g)     Persons who join military service.

h)     The destitute, poor and beggars.

i)       Insane and mentally retarded persons.

3.      The Prophet of Islam imposed Jizyah at the rate of one dinar or 12 Dirhams per person per annum. However, during the reign of Hadrat Umar, the rates of Jizyah were raised according to the income level of the tax-payers. For the rich, the rate was fixed at 4 Dinars; for the middle class, it was fixed at 2 Dinars, and for the lower class it was retained at one Dinar. Disabled and poor Zimmis who are forced to begging or who are over-taken by a calamity are not only exempted from Jizyah but also are eligible for support from the public treasury of the Islamic State.

4.      The use of force or coercive methods in the collection of Jizyah are not allowed. For recovery of Jizyah, the non-Muslims are not to be put to undue inconvenience and harassment. Caliph Umar issued a directive to Abu Ubaidah, the governor of Syria, that the collectors of Jizyah should not harm the Zimmis or unlawfully deprive them of their properties. During his journey to Syria, Umar issued following instructions about the recovery of Jizyah from the Zimmis: “Do not chastise them for if you do so, Allah Almighty would do the same to you on the Day of Judgement”.

5.      The early Muslims were so fair and just in respect of Jizyah that when they found themselves unable to protect and safeguard their non-Muslim subjects, they refunded the amount of Jizyah which they had realized. It is reported on the authority of Imam Abu Yusaf that before the battle of Yurmuk when the Muslims withdrew from Hims, Damascus and other advanced posts, Abu Ubaidah, the commander of Muslim army, refunded the whole amount of Jizyah collected from the people of those areas. Not accustomed to such a benevolent treatment by the conquerors, the non-Muslims prayed for the victory and return of the Muslims and said: “O Muslims! We prefer you to the Byzantines, though they are of our own faith because you keep better faith with us and are more merciful to us and refrain from doing us injustice and your rule over us is better than theirs, for they have robbed us of our goods and our homes”. When Cyprus was conquered, Caliph Usman did not impose Jizyah on the non-Muslims as he was not sure whether he would be able to protect them against foreign invasion.

Justification of Jizyah

Imposition of Jizyah has been unfortunately subjected to very harsh and bitter criticism, particularly by the non-Muslim scholars. By referring to the words of the relevant Qur’anic verse (9:29), they allege that Jizyah is levied on the Zimmis as a punishment for their disbelief in order to humiliate them. But this allegation is absolutely biased and unfair. In fact, the words of the Qur’anic verse mean that the infidels in the war should be forced to surrender and submit to the Muslim rule and accept to pay tribute. Thus, the verse refers to the complete submission of the non-Muslims to the Muslim rule, which is of course inherent in the conquest of their country by the Muslim troops. That the non-Muslims should be humiliated at the time of payment of Jizyah every time, is a misconceived and incorrect interpretation of this verse. It would not be without interest to mention here the views of Imam Shafi. He says that the humiliation referred to in the Qur’an consists in the submission of the infidels to the Muslim rule and that the non-Muslims should not be admitted into the status of Zimmis except on condition of complete submission.

Muslim scholars and jurists have held the imposition of Jizyah tax on Zimmis by the Islamic state as justified on the following grounds:-

1.      In the Islamic Sate, every adult Muslim citizen is obliged to take up arms for its defence when the state is attacked and the freedom of his faith is imperiled. Participation in Jihad or military service is compulsory for every healthy and adult Muslim in case of foreign aggression, but it is not so in case of the non-Muslim citizens who do not subscribe to the ideology of Islam and, naturally, cannot be expected to assume such a religious obligation. Since non-Muslims are exempted from the military service, they are required in all fairness, to compensate the Muslim community in sharing of civic burdens.

2.      Islamic state guarantees protection to the lives and property of its non-Muslim subjects against internal as well as external danger. Moreover, their religious freedom and all civic rights are also protected. Despite the fact that such non-Muslims had either been defeated in the war or had surrendered, neither they are killed nor any war indemnities are imposed on them. Rather, peace treaties are concluded with them and they are given protection against any aggression. So Jizyah is imposed for this protection.

3.      The Muslim citizens of an Islamic state pay Zakat while the non-Muslims are not required to pay it. In this situation, the non-Muslims are naturally expected to contribute to the state exchequer for sharing the financial burdens of the Islamic state.

4.      Zakat is paid by every Muslim, male or female, old or minor, sane or insane, provided he possesses wealth at the level of nisab. However, Jizyah is levied only on adult male healthy non-Muslims capable to participate in a war. Women, old men, minors, sick, persons of unsound mind, poor, beggars, priests, etc. are exempted from the payment of Jizyah. Those non-Muslims who join the military service of the Islamic state are also exempted from the payment of Jizyah tax, while the Muslims are not exempt from Zakat even if they discharge the defence duties. Moreover, the rates of Jizyah are much lower as compared to Zakat because the highest rate of Jizyah is 4 Dinar or 48 Dirhams per person per annum, while the amount of Zakat can be substantial depending on the wealth of the tax payer. For instance, a Zimmi with wealth of one million Dinar would pay Jizyah at 4 Dinar only, while a Muslim possessing that much amount shall pay Zakat at 25 thousand Dinar.

4- What is Success?

Qur’an concept of success and Islam’s criterion to judge who is successful is different and innovative from the ordinary one. The normal and ordinary standard treats a person successful who is more wealthy, who is more powerful, who has more people under his command, who has more lands under his possession, who lives in a big house, who moves in a big car, who has more sons, who has a bigger tribe, or who is leading a life of luxury, ease, prosperity and plenty in comparison to other persons. But Islam does not treat such people as successful. According to Islam, successful is he who believes in Allah, in Muhammad (PBUH), and in other Prophets, in the Qur’an and Allah’s other revealed books, in the Day of Judgement and Hereafter, and who establishes worship of One God, who spends in the way of God, who performs all the practices, rituals and acts prescribed by Islam, who fears Allah and wards off evil, who is pious and does noble deeds, who refrains from prohibited things (haram), who fulfills all his duties toward Allah and towards human beings, who enjoins good and forbids wrong, and above all who leads life in accordance with tenets of Islam and attains success in the Hereafter.

From the following Verses of the Qur’an one can draw a picture of the man who is successful in the sight of the Qur’an:

·        Who believe in the unseen, and establish worship, and spend of that We have bestowed upon them; And who believe in that which is revealed unto thee (Muhammad) and that which was revealed before thee, and are certain of the Hereafter. These depend on guidance from their Lord. These are the successful.   (2:Al-Baqarah:3-5)

·        And there may spring from you a nation who invite to goodness, and enjoin right conduct and forbid indecency. Such are they who are successful.   (3:Al-Imran:104)

·        The weighing on that day is the true (weighing). As for those whose scale (of good deeds) is heavy, they are the successful.   (7:Al-A’raf:8)

·        Successful indeed are the believers, Who are humble in their prayers, And who shun vain conversation, And who are payers of Zakat; And who guard their modesty-save from their wives or the (slave women) that their right hands possess, for then they are not blameworthy. But whoso craveth beyond that, such are transgressors-And who are shepherds of their pledge and their covenant, And who pay heed to their prayers. These are the heirs, who will inherit Paradise. There they will abide.   (23:Al-Muminun:1-11)

·        So give to the kinsman his due, and to the needy, and to the wayfarer. That is best for those who seek Allah’s countenance. And such are they who are successful.   (30:Ar-Rum:38)

·        Those who establish worship and pay the poor-due and have sure faith in the Hereafter. Such have guidance from their Lord. Such are the successful.   (31:Luqman:4-5)

5- Two-Nation Theory

From the teachings of the Qur’an about the believers and the non-believers, whom the Qur’an addresses side by side as the two opponent divisions of human beings, some jurists have attempted to infer that the Qur’an propounds the concept of two-nation theory. Since the fall of Adam from Heaven, there have always lived two nations on earth ideologically opposed to each other. The believers and non-believers, the Muslims and non-Muslims, the good and the evil, the monotheists and the polytheists, the followers of Allah and His messengers and the followers of Satan, etc. are the two nations separate and independent from each other. To highlight this concept, the following verses of the Qur’an are quoted:-

1)     Allah is the Protecting Friend of those who believe. He bringeth them out of darkness into light. As for those who disbelieve, their patrons are false deities. They bring them out of light into darkness. Such are rightful owners of the fire. They will abide therein.   (2:Al-Baqarah:257)

2)     Those who believe do battle for the cause of Allah; and those who disbelieve do battle for the cause of idols. So fight the minions of the devil. Lo! the devil’s strategy is ever weak.   (4:An-Nisa:76)

3)     Those who disbelieve, theirs will be an awful doom; and those who believe and do good works, theirs will be forgiveness and great reward.   (35:Al-Fatir:7)

4)     That is because those who disbelieve follow falsehood and because those who believe follow the truth from their Lord. Thus, Allah coineth their similitudes for mankind.   (47:Muhammad:3)

5)     The devil hath engrossed them and so hath caused them to forget remembrance of Allah. They are the devil’s party. Lo! is it not the devil’s party who will be the losers? Lo those who oppose Allah and His messenger, they will be among the lowest. Allah hath decreed: Lo! I verily shall be victorious, I and My messengers. Lo! Allah is Strong, Almighty. Thou will not find folk who believe in Allah and the last Day loving those who oppose Allah and His messenger, even though they be their fathers or their sons or their brethren or their clan. As for such He hath written faith upon their hearts and hath strengthened them with a spirit from Him, and He will bring them into Gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide. Allah is well pleased with them, and they are well pleased with Him. They are Allah’s party. Lo! is it not Allah’s party who are the successful?   (58:Al-Mujadilah:19-22)

6)     There is goodly pattern for you in Abraham and those with him, when they told their folk: Lo! we are guiltless of you and all that ye worship beside Allah. We have done with you. And there hath arisen between us and you hostility and hate for ever until ye believe in Allah only.   (60:Al-Mumtahanah:4)

7)     Say: O disbelievers! I worship not that which ye worship; Nor worship ye that which I worship. And I shall not worship that which ye worship. Nor will ye worship that which I worship. Unto you your religion, and unto me my religion.   (109:Al-Kafirun:1-6)

Thus, the Qur’an addresses the believers and non-believers as two separate groups of mankind who believe in two opposing ideologies and therefore, they form two separate nations based on ideological differences.

6- Doctrine of necessity

In human affairs certain situations may arise when it is not possible to comply with the laws or rules of conduct as compliance with the law or observance of the rules would mean death or destruction or irreparable loss of huge quantum. In such circumstances which are beyond human control, the urgency or necessity of the moment demands that the rigours of law should be relaxed and the hardships involved in observance of rules should be eased. Therefore, in these circumstances the doctrine of necessity is invoked which renders prohibited things permissible and difficult things easy.

In Islam the sanction or mandate for application of the doctrine of necessity is provided by the fact that “God desires for you ease and He does not desire for you hardship’ (Al-Qur’an 2:185) and that “with hardship goes ease”.   (Al-Qur’an 94:6)

The Holy Qur’an permits the application of the doctrine of necessity in the matter of food items where there is urgent necessity (for example, starvation) and makes Haram (prohibited) food items as Halal (admissible) for consumption. God has forbidden the believers to eat carrion, and blood, and swineflesh and that which has been immolated to the name of other than God. However, if one is forced by hunger or by necessity, one is allowed to take these prohibited eatables subject to the condition that one should not have the intention of violating the law of God and one should not take more than absolute need (please refer to verses 2:172-173, 5:3 and 6:145 of the Qur’an). Thus the doctrine of necessity can be invoked in cases of urgency and compulsion where things are out of human control subject to the following conditions:

1)     There must be a real need or necessity and not merely an excuse or pretext. The need should be such that one faces danger of instant death or destruction if some haram (forbidden) thing is not used or if some forbidden act is not undertaken.

2)     One must not be craving or crazy or have intention to eat what is forbidden just to break the law of God. Some people take pride and pleasure in violating a law. But this tendency must be curbed while taking advantage of permission granted by Allah under this clause.

3)     One must not be transgressing which means that one must remain within limits and only satisfy his needs. He should not overstep or transgress the limits and should not take or consume more than what is needed for survival or existence.

Sometimes, the doctrine of necessity is applied unjustifiably in the political field. Islam condemns despotism, autocracy, fascism and dictatorship. Submission to the evil rule of tyrants, transgressors, despots and dictators is prohibited absolutely. However, in some situations the courts invoke the doctrine of necessity to justify the evil rule of tyrants and transgressors. Even some people advocate complete surrender before such rulers relying on this doctrine. But in our view this is the wrong application of doctrine of necessity. Such courts and people should not forget that struggle against tyrants and despots is Jihad. The Prophet of Islam is reported to have said that a word of truth uttered before a despot is the greatest Jihad.

7- Parables of the Qur’an

In order to make its teachings more plain and clear, the Qur’an gives examples and similitudes and relates parables from everyday life of human beings so that they may understand and meditate. Allah says in the Qur’an: “And verily We have coined for mankind in this Qur’an all kinds of similitudes, that haply they may reflect. (39:27). At another place He says in the Qur’an: If We had caused this Qur’an to descend upon a mountain, thou (O Muhammad) verily had seen it humbled rent asunder by the fear of Allah. Such similitudes coin We for mankind that haply they may reflect.   (59:21).

            There are hundreds of such similitudes or parables in the Qur’an. For constraints of space, we provide references to only some of them as follows:

-        Man who kindled fire: 2(17),

-        Of gnat: 2(26),

-        Of growth of charity: 2(261, 265, 276),

-        Of spending for show: 2(264),

-        Dog who lolls out his tongue: 7(176),

-        Believers and non-believers: 11(24),

-        One who stretches forth his hands towards water: 13(14),

-        Similitude of Paradise: 13(35),

-        Of good and bad word: 14(24-26),

-        Of woman who untwists her yarn: 16(92),

-        A city favoured but ungrateful: 16(112-113),

-        Of two men, one proud, other humble: 18(32-44),

-        A fly: 24(35-36),

-        A mirage: 24(39-40),

-        A spider: 29(41),

-        A town to which the messengers came: 36(13-32),

-        Donkey with books: 62(5),

-        Owners of the garden: 68(17-33),

8- Qur’anic Prayers

It is one of the fundamental teachings of the Qur’an that it is God only Who can help one in distress and Who can fulfil the needs of a person. None else can do it. Therefore, a man should call Him only for help and should pray to Him only for a favour or blessing when he needs one. Man should not spread his hands before anyone and should not beg anyone for any of his needs. It is God alone who should be begged and prayed in case of need. And when God fulfills man’s needs, only He should be thanked. No one else should be made partner with God in asking for favour and in expressing thankfulness. God listens to the prayers and responds. The Qur’an says: “And when My servants question thee concerning Me, then surely I am nigh. I answer the prayer of the suppliant when he crieth unto Me. So let them hear My call and let them trust in Me, in order that they may be led aright.” (2:Al-Baqarah:186). At another place (40:60) the Qur’an says: “And your Lord says: Pray to Me, I will respond to your prayer………”

The way one must pray to God has also been laid down in the Qur’an. It directs:

·        (O mankind!) Call upon your Lord humbly and in secret. Lo! He loveth not aggressor. Work not confusion in the earth after the fair ordering (thereof), and call on Him in fear and hope. Lo! The mercy of Allah is nigh unto the good.   (7:Al-A’raf:55-56)

·        Therefore (O believers) pray unto Allah, making religion pure for Him (only), however much the disbelievers be averse.   (40:Al-Mu’min:14)

In the following Ahadith, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) has also taught us the need of prayer, the efficacy of prayer and how to pray:  

·        Abu Hurairah reported that the Apostle of Allah said: Invoke Allah being certain of response and know that Allah does not respond to the invocation of a careless and absent mind.   (Tirmizi, Rare)

·        Salman al-Faresi reported that the Apostle of Allah said: Nothing but invocation averts a decree, and nothing but righteousness increases life.   (Tirmizi)

·        Jaber reported: There is none who invokes for anything but Allah gives him what he beseeches or withholds from him a harm like it, till he does not invoke to commit a sin or to severe a blood tie.   (Tirmizi, Rare)

·        Abu Hurairah reported that the Apostle of Allah said: Allah becomes displeased with one who does not invoke him.   (Tirmizi)

The Qur’an, in its various verses, has described in beautiful and pleasant words, the prayers of the Prophets and the righteous persons which they had made to Allah in their happy as well as in their adverse circumstances. Although there is no restriction as to the words of the prayer or the language of the prayer, yet it is much better if one addresses his prayer to Allah in the words of the Prophets and the righteous persons and in the language of the Qur’an (i.e. Arabic). Following are some of the references to these prayers in the Qur’an:

-        The greatest prayer which has been revealed to none of the Prophets except Muhammad.   1(1-7),

-        Prayer of believers: 2(156), 2(201), 2(286), 3(8-9), 3(16), 3(26-27), 3(113), 23(109), 25(74),

-        Of Abraham: 2(127-129), 14(35-41), 26(83-87), 60(4-5),

-        Of Muhammad: 1(1-7), 3(26-27), 6(162-163), 17(80), 20(114), 23(118), 113(1-5), 114(1-6),

-        Of army of Saul: 2(250),

-        Of Zachariah: 3(38), 21(89),

-        Of disciples of Jesus: 3(53),

-        Of Adam and Eve: 7(23),

-        Of Shuaib: 11(88),

-        Of Joseph: 12(101),

-        Of Moses: 20(25-28), 28(16), 28(24),

-        Of Jonah: 21(87),

-        Of Noah: 23(28-29), 71(26-28),

-        Of Solomon: 27(19), 38(35),

-        Of angels for believers: 40(7-9),

-        Of a student for growth in knowledge: 20(25-28), 20(114),

-        Of Mujahideen: 2(250), 3(147),

-        Of a believer to escape the evils of Satan, witchcraft, envy etc. 113(1-5), 114(1-6),

-        Of men of understanding: 3(191-194),

-        Of the oppressed: 4(75),

-        Of a man about children: 7(189), 25(74), 46(15),

-        Of a man about parents: 17(24),

-        When riding: 43(13-14),

--------------------The End--------------------



Books by the Author


·        What is Islam?

·        A Code of the Teaching of Al-Qur’an

·        Women’s Right in Islam

·        Taxation in Islam and Modern Taxes

·        Human Rights in Islam

·        A Model Islamic Constitution

·        On-Muslim Minorities in an Islamic State

·        Islam’s Charter of Fundamental Rights and Civil Liberties

·        The Woman in a Muslim Society

·        An Introduction to the Islamic State and Government

·        Fundaments of Islamic Economic System

·        Elements of Political System of Islam

·        Administration of Justice in Islam

·        Nasoos-ul-Qur’an (Urdu)

·        Family Planning in Islam

·        Code of Islamic Laws

·        Injunctions of the Holy Qur’an

·        Dynamics of Islamic Jihad

·        Dastoor-ul-Qur’an (Urdu)

·        Social and Moral code of Islam

·        Concept of God in the Qur’an

·        Manifesto of the Qur’an

·        A Comparative study of World Religions

·        March Towards the Doomsday

·        Life After Death

·        Prophet Muhammad in the Holy Scriptures

·        Meaning of the Magnificent Qur’an

·        Message of the Magnificent Qur’an



About the Author

            Dr. Muhammad Sharif Chaudhry was born in a devout religious family of farmers at village Garewala in Kasur District of the Punjab on November 5, 1944. He did his matriculation from Government High School Usmanwala in 1961. and did F.A. from Government Islamia College, Lahore. In 1963. He graduated from Government College, Lahore in 1965. He got Master’s in History from the University the Punjab in 1967. Even after joining service he continued his education. He did L.L.B. From the university of the Punjab in 1975. In the year 2000, at fairly advanced age of 56 he obtained Ph.D. In Comparative Religions from U.S.A. He enjoys an extremely brilliant academic career with first divisions, scholarships and merit positions.

During 1968 and 1969, Mr. Chaudhry taught History at Govt. Degree College Pattoki, District Lahore. He joined (Incomtax) service of the Government of Pakistan in 1970 through Central Superior Service Examination.

As a public servant he served, with distinction in various parts including that of Deputy Commissioner, Additional Director Training, Commissioner Incometax, Director General Incometax Audit, Chief Tax Education CBR. Then he joined Ministry of Law and Justice Government of Pakistan and served as member Incometax Appellate Tribunal from where he retired on November 4, 2004. Presently he is doing legal practice as an Advocate of High Court at Lahore.

He is a prolific writer and has authored so far 28 books on Islam which cover a wide range of subjects including human rights, law, justice, defence, constitution, politics, theology, economics, taxation, family planning, etc. He also writes articles in magazines and delivers lectures as guest speaker in various institutions on current issues relating to religion, economics and taxation.

Mr. Chaudhry lives at 169-A/I, Township, Lahore Pakistan. His website address is:



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