Part V: Pilgrimage (Al-Hajj)
Prophet’s Farwell Hajj and Hajj Manasak
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) performed only one Hajj in his life and that was performed in 10 A.H. i.e. in the last year of his life, a few months before his death. In the history of Islam this Hajj of the Prophet is called ‘Hajja-tul-Wida’. During this Hajj, the Prophet taught his followers by his actions and his words the Manasak (rites) of Hajj and how to perform them. He said to his companions again and again: “Learn from me manasak of your Hajj”. The full account of this Hajj has been provided by Jabir-bin-Abdullah, one of the great companions of the Prophet, who was with the Prophet during this Hajj from the beginning to the end. This account is available in famous Ahadith compilations like Masnad Ahmad, Sahih Muslim, Abu Daud and Ibn Majah. It is reproduced as under:
Hadhrat Jabir-bin-Abdullah reported: “The messenger of Allah stayed at Madinah for nine years, but he did not go for Hajj during these years. Then in the 10th year of Hijrah, he got it publicly announced that he would go for Hajj that year. People started pouring into Madinah from all sides with the intense desire and intention to accompany the Holy Prophet to Makkah and follow him in whatever he did”.
“The Hajj caravan moved out from the city under the Holy Prophet and halted at Zul-Hulaifah for a day or so. Here Asma’ bint ‘Umais, a wife of Hadhrat Abu Bakr, gave birth to Muhammad bin Abi Bakr. Asma’ asked the Holy Prophet through a messenger as to what she would do.” The Holy Prophet sent back the message saying: “Have bath, bandage your private parts and put on ihram”.
“Then after leading the prayer at Zul-Hulaifah, the Holy Prophet mounted his she-camel, Qaswa’, and rode to the nearby elevated plain, called Baida’, When I looked around from Baida’, I saw multitudes of people in front and at the rear, to the right and to the left, as far as I could see, some riding and some on foot. The Messenger of Allah was in our midst. As he was the recipient of Revelation and understood it fully well and acted in accordance with it, we followed him in whatever he did. Here, at Baida’, the Holy Prophet recited the following Talbiyah of the Oneness of Allah aloud:
(Labbaik, Allahumma labbaik! Labbaik, la sharika laka, labbaik, Inn-al-hamda wan-ni`mata laka wal-mulka, la sharika laka).
“Here I am, O Allah, here I am in Thy presence. Thou hast no partner; here I am! Thou alone deserve all praise! Thou alone can bestow favours! Sovereignty is Thine and Thou hast no partner.”
“The Companions also recited their Talbiyah aloud (perhaps they were adding a few words), but the Holy Prophet did not mind those words, and went on reciting his own Talbiyah.
“The main purpose of our journey was to accomplish Hajj and not ‘Umrah. So when we reached the House of Allah, the Holy Prophet first of all kissed the Black Stone, and then started moving around the Kaabah: he completed the first three circuits at a swift pace and the last four at the normal walking pace”. Then he came to the Place of Abraham and recited the verse:
(Wattakhazu min-maqami Ibrahima musala)
“And take you the station of Abraham as a place of prayer.
“Then he stood up for prayer with the Place of Abraham between him and the Kaabah and offered two Rakaahs, in which he recited Qul ya-ayyu-hal Kafirun (Surah No. 109) and Qul hu-wallahu Ahad (Surah No. 112). Then he returned to the Black Stone, and kissed it; then he went out through gate Safa towards Mt. Safa and reaching it recited:
(Inn-as-Safa wal-Marwata min Sha`airillahi)
“Indeed Safa and Marwah are among the signs of Allah.”
Then said: “I begin my Sai from Safa as Allah has mentioned it before Marwah”.
Then he climbed Safa till he could clearly see the House of Allah: He then stood facing the Qiblah, and proclaiming the Oneness and Greatness of Allah, recited:
(La illaha ill-Allahu wahdahu la sharika lahu, lahul mulku wa lahul-hamdu wa huwa ‘ala kulli shai’in Qadr. La ilaha ill-Allahu wahdahu anjaza wa’dahu wa nasara ‘abdahu wa hazamal ahzab-a wahdahu).
“There is no god but Allah, the One: He has no partner; Sovereignty is His and all kinds of praises too, and He has full powers over everything. There is no god but Allah, the One: He has fulfilled His Promise (by subduing the whole of Arabia to Islam) and has helped His servant fully, and has put to rout all the forces of disbelief by Himself”,.
“He recited these words thrice, and prayed in between, then he descended Safa and moved towards Marwah and repeated at Marwah the same that he had recited at Safa.
“Then when he came to Marwah on his last trip, he addressed his Companions from the top, saying:
“Had I known before what I came to know later, I would not have brought the sacrificial offering with me, and would have converted this Tawaf and Sai into that of ‘Umrah, and put off ihram after the performance of ‘Umrah. However those of you who have not brought the sacrificial offering along with them, may regard this Tawaf and Sai as of ‘Umrah and put off ihram”.
“Hearing this, Suraqah bin Malik stood up and asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah! Is this command meant for this year only, or is it for the future as well?”
The Holy Prophet intertwined the fingers of his two hands and said: “Umrah and Hajj have been combined like this; not only for this year but forever!”
“And ‘Ali arrived from Yaman with more sacrificial animals for the Holy Prophet. When he noticed that his wife, Hadhrat Fatimah, had set aside ihram, put on coloured clothes and applied antimony, he expressed his displeasure over this; but she told him that her father, the Holy Prophet himself, had allowed her to put off ihram.
“The Holy Prophet turned to Hardat ‘Ali and asked: ‘What was your intention while putting on ihram? (That is, did you have the intention of performing Hajj only, or Hajj and ‘Umrah both?) Hadhrat ‘Ali replied that he had said, ‘O Allah! My intention while putting on ihram is the same as of Thy Prophet’. The Holy Prophet then said:
Since I have brought the sacrificial offering along with me, I cannot put off ihram, and as your intention was the same as mine, you also cannot set it aside’.
Hadhrat Jabir continued:
“The total number of the camels brought by the Holy Prophet and Hadhrat ‘Ali as sacrificial offering was 100. All the companions who had come without sacrificial offerings set aside ihram garments accordingly and got their hair clipped except those who had brought sacrificial offerings with them.
“Then when the Day of Tarwiyah (i.e., 8th of Zil-Hajj) came, the people started moving towards Mina and those of them who had put off ihram of ‘Umrah, resumed their ihram for Hajj. The Holy Prophet rode to Mina on his she-camel, Qaswa’, and there he led all the five prayers from Zuhr to Fajr. Then he waited till the sun rose; then he left for ‘Arafa, and ordered a hair tent to be pitched for him at Namrah. The Quraish were sure that he would halt at Mashar-al-Haram as had been the custom among them in the days of ignorance, but the Holy Prophet crossed the limits of Mashar-al-Haram and entered the bounds of ‘Arafah and stayed in the tent that had been pitched for him at Namrah”.
“Then when the sun began to decline, he ordered that Qaswa’ should be saddled for him, and this was done.
“The Holy Prophet rode to the bottom of the valley of ‘Urnah, and addressed the people from the camel back, saying:
“O People! Shedding of blood and seizing others’ properties in unlawful ways, are forbidden to you just as they are forbidden on this day, in this month and in this city.
“Note it well that all customs and usages of the days of ignorance are trampled under my feet; the blood-feuds of the past are abolished, and first of all I give up our family’s claim with regard to the son of Rabiah bin al-Harith bin ‘Abdul Muttalib, who was being suckled by Bani Sa’d when he was killed by Bani Huzail. Abolished also are all the claims of interest (Riba) of the past, and first of all I give up the claims in this respect of my uncle, ‘Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib.
“O People! Fear Allah with regard to the rights of your women: You have married them on Allah’s security and they have become lawful to you only by His Law. Your special right on them is that they should not allow an undesirable person to enter your house and sit on your bed; but if they commit an error in this regard, you may punish them lightly. The women’s special right on you is that you should clothe and feed them generously according to your means.
“O People! I am leaving behind for you the fountainhead of guidance: if you hold fast to it and follow its teachings, you will never go astray; this is the Book of Allah.
“O People, Listen! Every Muslim is a brother unto the other Muslim, and all Muslims are brethren unto one another. Therefore, the property of one is unlawful for the other unless given willingly, and do not be unjust to one another.
“On the Day of Rising when you will be asked about me (whether I have conveyed fully Allah’s messages or not), what will you say?
The whole congregation spoke out with one voice:
‘We bear witness that you have conveyed to us the whole Divine Guidance in the best way possible and given us the wisest counsel.’
“At this the Holy Prophet raised his forefinger towards the sky, and then pointing to the congregation, said thrice: ‘O Allah! Be Thou also a witness! I have conveyed Thy Message and Thy Commands to Thy people, as has been confirmed by them”.
“Then Hadhrat Bilal called out Azan and pronounced Iqamah, and the Holy Prophet led the Zuhr Prayer; Bilal once again pronounced Iqamah and the Holy Prophet led the ‘Asr Prayer. After observing the Zuhr and ‘Asr Prayer together, the Holy Prophet rode to the place of halting, and turned his she-camel towards the big rocks with the whole congregation of the people in front of him, and facing the Qiblah kept standing there till the sun began to set, and the yellowness of the evening was gone and the sun completely disappeared. Then he set off for Muzdalfah with Usama bin Zaid behind him on the camel back.
“—When we reached Muzdalfah, he led the Maghrib and ‘Isha Prayers together with one Azan and two Iqamahs, but did not observe any Sunnat or Nafl Prayer. After this he lay down for rest till it was dawn when he led the Fajr Prayer duly with Azan and Iqamah; then he rode to Mashar-al-Haram, stood there facing the Qiblah and recited Allah’s Greatness, His Oneness and Glory for quite some time.
When the daylight spread, he left for Mina a little before sunrise. Now he had Fadl bin Abbas behind him on the camel back. When he came to the bottom of the Valley of Muhassir, he urged his she-camel to go a bit faster; then he followed the middle path leading to the largest Jamrah, which is near the tree, and cast seven pebbles at it, pronouncing Allahu Akbar every time. These were small pebbles, which he threw from the valley side.
After this he went to the place of sacrifice and slaughtered 63 camels with his own hand, the rest were slaughtered by Hadhrat ‘Ali, whom he took as a partner in his sacrificial offering. Then he ordered that a piece of flesh from each camel should be taken and cooked. After it was ready he and ‘Ali took the meat and drank the soup.
Then the Holy Prophet mounted his she-camel and left for the Tawaf of Visit (Ziarah) of the House of Allah. He led the Zuhr Prayer at Makkah, and then approached the people of his family (Bani ‘Abdul Muttalib) who were drawing Zamzam water for the people to drink. He also asked them for water, saying: ‘Had I not feared that the people, in their eagerness to follow me, would have forcibly usurped this service of supplying water from you, I would also have drawn waters along with you’. They gave him a bucketful of water from which he drank”. (Muslim)
How to perform Hajj – A summary of all Manasak (Rites) and acts which you will do in Hajj
From Prophet’s Hajjatul Wida and from what he taught his companions about Hajj, we not only learn how Hajj is performed but we also come to know the details of manasak of Hajj and order in which they are to be performed. Following is the summary of the manasak which you are to perform and the steps which you are to take for accomplishment of your Hajj:-
1) Perform bath, put on Ihram making intention of Hajj, offer two Rakaahs of Nafl prayer, start saying Talbiyah, go to airport and board the aeroplane for Jeddah. From Jeddah go to Makkah.
2) After reaching Makkah, enter Masjid ul Haram and make Tawaf of Baitullah (the House of Allah).
3) After Tawaf, come to Maqame Ibrahim and offer two Rakaah prayer there, and then drink Zamzam water.
4) Then go to Safa and Marwah and make Sai i.e. (run seven times between them). You would start from Safa and would finish at Marwah.
Now you have completed the manasak of your Umrah. If you are on Umrah or on Hajj Tamattu, you can put off your Ihram after shaving or clipping your hair. But if you are on Hajj Qiran or Ifrad, then do not clipp or shave your hair and keep on wearing your Ihram. In this Ihram you would perform your Hajj.
5) On 8th of Zul-Hajjah you would put on your Ihram (if you are already not in Ihram) and proceed to Mina. You would stay there for the remaining time of the day and for the night and offer five daily prayers there.
6) In the morning of 9th Zul Hajjah, after sunrise, proceed to Arafat. After reaching there you will offer Zuhr and Asr prayer together in congregation with one Adhaan and two Iqamahs, but before that you would listen to Khutbah of the Imam. And then you would come in the plain of Arafat and till sunset you would stay there, remembering Allah and praying to Him. This short stay at Arafat is called Wuquf of Arafah and it is the greatest and one of three Fard (obligatory) Manasak of Hajj.
7) After sunset, without offering Maghrib prayer there, you would leave for Muzdalfah. After reaching there, you would offer Maghrib and Isha prayer together (in the time of Isha prayer) in congregation with one Adhaan and two Iqamahs. This night you will spend in Muzdalfah.
8) In the morning of 10th of Zul Hajjah, you would offer Fajr prayer in Muzdalfah and facing Qiblah halt for few minutes at Mashar-ul-Haram praying to Allah. It is called Wuquf Muzdalfah.
9) On the same day, before the sunrise, start for Mina through the way of Muhassar Valley. After reaching Mina throw seven pebbles on Jamarah Al-Aqba.
10) On the same day, after throwing pebbles, offer sacrifice of animal if you can or if you are required.
11) After sacrifice, shave or clip your hair. And then put off your Ihram, take bath and wear your routine clothes. With this all the restrictions of Ihram relax but you cannot have sexual intercourse with your wife till you perform Tawaf of Kaabah.
12) On the same day, go to Makkah and perform Tawaf of Kaabah which is called Tawaf Ziarah or Tawaf Afazah and is one of the Fard (obligatory) manasak of Hajj. And then perform Sai of Safa and Marwah.
13) Then return to Mina and stay there for three days and nights. These three days i.e., 11th, 12th and 13th of Zil Hajjah are called Days of Tashreeq. Remember Allah and remain busy in worship.
14) During days of Tashreeq, you are daily required to throw seven stones on each of the three Jamarahs.
15) On the evening of 12th or 13th, you can return to Makkah. Your Hajj is complete but before going home you are required to make Tawaf of Kaabah which is called Tawaf Wida (Farewell Tawaf) and it is Wajib (imperative) for an outsider (Afaaqi).
Classification of Hajj Manasak
We have already presented above a list of the manasak (rites or articles or functions or acts) of Hajj and the order in which they are to be performed in doing Hajj. Some of these manasak are Fard (obligatory or compulsory), some are Wajib (imperative or essential) and most are sunnat. The Fard manasaks of Hajj are generally called articles.
Fard Articles: Following three rites or articles are Fard in nature. If you miss any of them or ignore them, or you do not perform them at the prescribed times, at prescribed places and in prescribed order (or sequence), your Hajj will not be valid:
1) Ihram: To put on Ihram is a condition of Hajj as well as its Fard article.
2) Wuquf Arafah: To reach and halt or stay or stop at Arafat on 9th of Zil Hajjah is obligatory though for few minutes. It is considered the greatest article of Hajj, rather it is the Hajj.
3) Tawaf Afaza or Ziarah: Tawaf of Kaabah is obligatory on 10th of Zil Hajjah after Rami and sacrifice, and if not possible on that day then on 11th or 12th during stay at Mina. It is the third article of Hajj. It is also called Tawaf Hajj.
Wajib Articles: Following nine articles or rites are Wajib (imperative or essential). If you miss or ignore any of them you will have to give Kaffarah (expiation) which is generally sacrifice of an animal or sometimes fasting or charity.
1) Tawaf Qudoom (Tawaf of Arrival): Tawaf of Kaabah has to be performed at arrival in Makkah. It is Wajib (essential) for an Afaaqi (outsider) i.e. a person who lives at a place outside the bounds of Meeqaat.
2) Sai: to make Sai, i.e. to run between Safa and Marwah.
3) Wuquf at Muzdalfah: To halt at Muzdalfah on 10th of Zil Hajjah any time after break of dawn but before sunrise.
4) To combine the Maghrib and Isha prayers at the time of Isha at Muzdalfah in the night between 9th and 10th of Zil-Hajjah while returning from Arafat.
5) Rami Jamarahs: To throw pebbles on all the three Jamarahs.
6) Sacrifice of animal: To offer sacrifice of animal on 10th of Zil Hajjah after Rami of Jamarah al-Aqba or on any of the following three days during stay at Mina. It is Wajib for those who perform Hajj Qiran or Hajj Tamattu.
7) Halq or Taqseer: to get one’s hair shaved or clipped on 10th of Zil-Hajjah after throwing stones at Jamarah-al-Aqba.
8) Tawaf Wida: It is Wajib on those who come from places outside of Meeqaat that they should perform Farewell Tawaf of Kaabah before they leave for their homes.
9) To maintain sequence or order between Rami, Qurbani and Halq or Taqseer.Sunnat Articles: Rest of the Manasak or rites which are not so binding in nature are called sunnat, These Sunnat rites will be brought to the notice of the readers in the subsequent chapters.
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